The standard JOCS method for computing peroxide (PV) using acetic acid / iso-octane mixture as solvent has been in use since 1996, but it cannot be used in the case of sesame oil. The JOCS method could also not be used for palm olein, virgin olive oil and virgin rapeseed oil. The authors have thus established an improved method that would be applicable to sesame oil as well as other vegetable oils. The results obtained with it in this study were compared with those by the JAS method. The improved method involved attention to specified amounts of solvents and saturated KI, and standing time subsequent to saturated KI solution addition. 60 mL solvent, 1 mL sat. KI soln. and 5 min of standing time, instead of 50 mL, 0.1 mL and 0 min in the JOCS method, respectively, were found to give accurate values comparable to those by the JAS method. The relative error by the improved method, as the quotient obtained by dividing PV difference between JAS and this method by JAS-PV, were within 15% for all the above oils except cottonseed and high linoleic sunflower oils.
The mechanisms for removal of synthetic sebum constituents squalene, cholesterol, triolein and oleic acid from polyester (PET) fabric substrate in an aqueous solution of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were studied by applying a pseudo-phase retention equation to the migration of a soil in a liquid chromatography column in which the fabric serves as the stationary phase and an aqueous micellar solution of SDS serves as the mobile phase. The retention volume of the four fatty soils on PET fabric was measured as a function of the SDS concentration in the mobile phase. The changes in standard free energy of soil transfer from water onto the fabric substrate (-ΔG°sw), from water into micelles (-ΔG°mw) and from fabric substrate into the micelles (-ΔG°ms) were calculated from the partition coefficient data determined chromatographically at various concentrations of micellar mobile phases. The -ΔG°sw for the re-deposition of fatty soil onto the PET substrate increased in the following order: cholesterol < oleic acid < squalene v triolein. The -ΔG°mw for solubilization of the soil from water (non-micellar solution) into SDS micelles increased in the following order: oleic acid < cholesterol v squalene v triolein. The -ΔG°ms for removal of the soil from the PET substrate into SDS micelles decreased in the following order: cholesterol > squalene > triolein. These thermodynamic parameters suggest that removal of fatty soils from PET fabric is dependent on the tendencies of the soils to redeposit onto the fabric and to solubilize into SDS micelles.
Decoloration of Orange II catalyzed by rice hull peroxidase (RPO) was examined for effects incurred through application of horseradish peroxidase (HRP), Arthromyces ramosus peroxidase (ARP), milk lactic peroxidase (LPO) and soybean peroxidase (SPO). The rate of Orange II decoloration increased with RPO content. 90% decoloration occurred within 120 seconds at RPO the concentration of 3.4×10-7 M. Decoloration rate was maximum near pH 9.0. At 20°C, RPO caused Orange II to fade more quickly than LPO or SPO, though the decoloration rate was the same as for ARP and HRP. Decoloration did not accelerate with any of the four peroxidases (PODs) at high temperature. Between 20°C and 80°C, the rate constant of RPO greatly increased with temperature, being 5 times greater at 60°C than at 20°C and 7 times greater at 80°C. The decoloration rate of Orange II with RPO increased greatly subsequent to storage for 0 minutes and then at 90°C for a period of 150 minutes, the decoloration rate of Orange II remained the same. RPO was found to be the most stable POD at high temperature.
Surfactant micelle should typically be regarded as a small system characterized by non linear homogeneity of the thermodynamic functions. Aqueous micellar solutions of single component ionic surfactant with an electrolyte added have been treated by the small system thermodynamics. The functional form of chemical potential μM of interacting micelles in solution has been determined. The aggregation number distribution and the mean degree of counterion binding β of ionic micelles are discussed in detail, in which the condition to make β constant at given T and P is obtained. Corrin-Harkins equation and its linearity have theoretically been discussed in relation to the definitions of critical micelle concentration. The gradient of linear Corrin-Harkins plot can to good approximation presume the value of β of micelles in solutions at concentrations higher than CMC as well as at CMC.
(-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is the principal acid Garcinia cambogia fruit rind and has been shown a potent inhibitor of ATP-citrate lyase (EC18.104.22.168) and thus frequently used for weight control. Examination was made of the effects of jelly drink containing Garcinia cambogia extract and partially hydrolized guar gum on obesity in human subjects not yet obese (body mass index, 25 to 30 kg/m2). One pack (200g) of jelly drink was provided to each of 16 adult volunteers (41.3 ± 8.0 years old, 6 males, 10 females) containing 250 mg HCA three times a day, meal time, for 12 weeks. Serum mineral content was measured and hemological and hemobiological date were obtained at 4-week intervals throughout the test period and also during a 2-week post treatment period (14 weeks). Energy and mineral intake from food and drink were recorded and evaluated by a dietician. Tomography (CT) scans were obtained for each subject at the umbilical level before and after treatment. Body weight, BMI, body fat ratio, waist circumference and hip circumference all indicated, significant reduction after treatment. Total fat area (TFA) and Visceral fat area (VFA) were noted to have decreased significantly (p < 0.05). No toxicological change could be detected during the 14-week period. The regular use of jelly drink containing Garcinia cambogia extracts and partially hydrolyzed guar gum is thus shown by the present findings to be a safe effective means for reducing body weight, BMI, body fat ratio, waist circumference, hip circumference, TFA and VFA in persons prior to becoming obese. It’s daily use may thus be recommended for body weight control.
The influence of root exudates on colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi was evaluated. Root exudates of cucumber (Cucumis sativus ) and carrot (Daucus carota ) were supplied to each of the seedlings grown in soil containing AM fungi. AM colonization was significantly suppressed in C. sativus treated with root exudates from D. carota as well as in D. carota treated with root exudates from C. sativus . Detection (%) of AM fungi belonging to Glomus and Acaulospora and/or Entrophospora was remarkably reduced in C. sativus and D. carota treated with root exudates from D. carota and C. sativus , respectively.
Feeding behavior is thought to be one of the most important homeostatic mechanisms. Several studies have indicated that when animals are deprived of a certain amount of nutritional elements, they ingest more to compensate for the loss. In this study, we investigated whether unbalanced fatty acid composition of maintenance diet affects the choice of fatty acids. Rats were divided into two groups and fed a polyunsaturated fatty acid diet (P-rich diet) or a monounsaturated fatty acid diet (M-rich diet). To habituate the animals to the test procedure, a three-bottle-choice test using one bottle of a 2% sucrose solution and two bottles of water was conducted. Rats in the M-rich group tended to ingest more sucrose solution than rats in the P-rich group. In the test using emulsions of three kinds of triacylglycerol, rats of the M-rich group tended to ingest less. The difference in the fatty acid composition of the triacylglycerol used as the test solution didn’t affect the choice. A two-bottle-choice test between oleic acid (OA) and linoleic acid (LA) showed that rats in both groups ingested more LA and rats in the M-rich group preferred LA. A two-bottle-choice test between LA and linolenic acid (LN) did not produce a statistically significant outcome. The results indicate that dietary fat might affect feeding behavior in rats. However, the difference was very small, particularly when the oil used for the choice test was provided as a triacylglycerol.