Used frying oil recovered from food manufacturing companies in Japan and recycled often shows lower carbonyl (COV) and peroxide values (POV) than oil simply heated at 180°C for 20 h does. In this study the reasons for the low COV of oil used for deep-frying were investigated by employing model experiments and actual commercial frying. The results suggested that in actual frying, the factor most influencing the low COV was vaporization of carbonyl compounds, together with steam generated from water contained in frying foodstuffs. It was also suggested that the low levels of COV were attributable partly to inhibition by protein, amino acids exuded from frying foodstuffs, and starch, and slightly to the effects of natural antioxidants in fresh oil and frying foodstuffs, oil absorption by frying foodstuffs, and dilution of oil in use by fresh oil added between uses. On the other hand, the chemical properties of oil in a fryer and in batter coatings of deep-fried foods made with the former oil were checked. Content of polar compounds (PC) and color score were obviously worse in the oil extracted from batter coatings than in that in the fryer, but there were no differences in COV or content of triacylglycerol (TG) of the two oils.
A steam distilled oil obtained from Matteuccia struthiopteris was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The oil was found to contain 103 volatile components, and (E)-phytol (24.8%), nonanal (15.1%) and decanal (7.6%) as the main compounds. The oil included two aldehydes known as sea-weed like odor, (8Z, 11Z, 14Z)-heptadecatrienal (0.6%) and (8Z, 11Z)-heptadecadienal (0.1%). The most characteristic aroma compound was (6Z)-nonenal.
Water-soluble metal working fluids are used for processing of aluminum alloy materials. This short article describes properties of new additives in water-soluble metal working fluids for aluminum alloy materials. Many half esters or diesters were prepared from the reactions of higher alcohols with acid anhydrides. Interestingly, diesters of PTMG (tetrahydrofuran oligomer, MW = 650 and 1000) and polybutylene oxide (MW = 650) with maleic anhydride and succinic anhydride showed both of an excellent anti-corrosion property for aluminum alloy and a good hard water tolerance. The industrial soluble type processing oils including these additives also showed anti-corrosion property and hard water tolerance.
There has been no information on lipids of brackish water mysid Neomysis intermedia, which is the most important mysid for human food in Japan. The present study revealed their lipid content, lipid class composition, and fatty acid compositions of total lipids (TL) and major lipid classes. Lipid content of the mysid was 1.0% on wet-weight base. Major lipid classes were phosphatidylcholines (PC, 26%), phosphatidylethanolamines (PE, 24%), and phosphatidylinositols (PI, 14%), whereas the content of triacylglycerols (TAG) was relatively low (7%). Major fatty acids of the TL were 16:0 (21%), 18:1n-9 (12%), 20:5n-3 (EPA; 19%) and 22:6n-3 (DHA; 14%), and the latter two polyunsaturated fatty acids were concentrated in PI (totally 47%) and PE (43%) fractions rather than in PC (20%) and TAG (18%). Arachidonic acid (4%) was also higher in the PI (7%) and PE (5%). When the mysid was fed tri-, di- and monoacylglycerols prepared from DHA-rich fish oil, DHA mainly increased in the TAG fraction of the mysid. The mysid appeared to primarily incorporate exogenous DHA into TAG fraction.
Novel bifunctional acyl-acceptant biphenyls bearing trifluoromethylated aroyloxy groups were successfully synthesized in high yields via TfOH-mediated electrophilic aromatic aroylation of fluorobenzene with CF3-bearing aroyl chlorides followed by nucleophilic aromatic substitution with 2,2’-biphenol. Similarly, 2,2’-bis(trifluoromethylphenoxy)biphenyl was synthesized via nucleophilic aromatic substitution of 4-fluorobenzotrifluoride with 2,2’-biphenol. These 2,2’-bis(trifluoromethylated aryloxy)biphenyls show good regioselectivity and successive reactivity in electrophilic aromatic aroylation with p-toluic acid/p-toluoyl chloride according to the structure of the substrate biphenyls, implying their sufficient potential as acyl-accepting precursor molecules for synthesis of aromatic compounds bearing characteristic interfacial properties attributed to CF3 groups.
Novel biodegradable and chemically recyclable carbonate-type cationic surfactants consisting of a long chain alkyl group and a quaternary ammonium propyl group were designed and synthesized as a green surfactant. These carbonate-type cationics showed better surface activities in an aqueous solution when compared to the conventional cationics. Novel cationics containing both the carbonate linkage and n-dodecyl group showed strong antimicrobial properties, enzymatic degradabilities for chemical recycling and rapid biodegradabilities by activated sludge.
Frying oil in use of cooking may contain acrylamide formed from frying foodstuffs. We have reported that administration of a diet containing 7% practically used frying oil for 12 weeks damaged liver and kidneys severely in Wistar rats. Then, male Wistar rats were fed ad libitum for 12 weeks a powdered diet (AIN93G; no fat) containing 7 wt% of fresh oil (control group) or frying oil heated with Asn + glucose for 20 h at 180°C under a nitrogen flow in order to form acrylamide under the least thermal deterioration (experimental group). The rats were subjected to anthropometric measurements, hematological analyses, and observations of the liver and kidneys. All of the rats grew well, and no gross symptoms attributable to the experimental oil were observed. But the experimental rats had significantly low insulin and triacylglycerol levels. The liver and kidneys from the experimental rats had damages, but the degree of the histological changes looked lighter than that of the rats fed practically used frying oil described above. The serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were also not much increased. Thus, it was suggested that continuous intake of trace acrylamide induced characteristically low serum insulin level and that the effects of the used frying oil on the liver and kidneys were hardly attributable to acrylamide possibly contained therein.