Previously, we reported that a diet containing canola oil shortened the life span of Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRSP) compared with diets containing other vegetable oils, and the phytosterol in dietary oil might induce the short-lived activity. In this study we discussed the effect of dietary phytosterol on whole blood viscosity of SHRSP using a Micro Channel array Flow Analyzer (MC-FAN) as a capillary vessel model. The whole blood viscosity of the perilla oil group was significantly lower than that of the canola oil group. These results might be induced by the increase of phytosterol compositon (i.e. the decrease of cholesterol composition) in the membranes of red blood cells.
The phase behavior of environment-friendly surfactants, polyoxyethylene phytosterylether (PhyEOm) in water and water/polyoxyethylene dodecylether (C12EO4) systems was studied. In the PhyEO10/water binary system, micellar solution (Wm), unidentified optically anisotropic liquid crystal (X) phase and lamellar (L α) phases are formed successively with increasing surfactant concentration at room temperature. With hydrophilic PhyEO20, the Wm, micellar cubic and hexagonal phases are formed in the binary system. With addition of C12EO4 to the dilute micellar solution of both PhyEOm type surfactants, a highly viscoelastic solutions of worm-like micelles are formed. Addition of C12EO4 to the liquid crystalline phases formed in binary system results in the formation of the L α phase, which extends over wide concentration range. In the PhyEO10/C12EO4/water system, the X-Lα phase transformation occurs via rectangular ribbon phase. The phase behavior of 5% PhyEOm with various EO-chain length, ranging from m = 5 to 20 was studied in a wide range of temperature (20°-100 °C). A phase separation occurs in the lipophilic PhyEOm (m < 8) aqueous systems at all temperature. In the PhyEOm with intermediate EO-chain length (11 < m < 16), small micelles undergo enormous one-dimensional growth upon increasing the temperature and form viscoelastic solution, followed by a phase separation; whereas in the long EO-chain PhyEOm (m = 17-20), the Wm phase of small aggregates exists in the entire temperature range.
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-enriched Chlorella vulgaris is commonly used as a feed in fisheries and as a dietary supplement. The time course DHA uptake into the Chlorella cells and incorporation of DHA into the triacylglycerols (TAG) and polar lipids (PL) were examined. After the addition of DHA into the Chlorella culture, DHA was rapidly taken up by the Chlorella cells and was mainly incorporated into TAG. However, some DHA was also incorporated into PL molecules. Although the percentage of DHA in the total fatty acids of total cellular lipids reached at 67%, the percentage in the total fatty acids of PL was 27.5%. As for the effects of pH, exogenous DHA was mainly incorporated into TAG molecules at pH 5-7. At pH 3-4 and 8, the DHA accumulated as free fatty acid in the cells. The exogenous DHA was rapidly incorporated into TAG molecules within 24 hours at pH 5-8. The findings should contribute profitably to production of better fishery feed and food supplement by using DHA-enriched Chlorella.
Kinetic resolution of enantiomers in racemic and enantiomerically enriched 2-alkanols by Pseudomonas cepacia lipase catalyzed transesterification has been studied using isopropenyl acetate as an acetylating reagent, six alcohols and different organic solvents. The optical resolution data did not fit the previously reported theory: the enantioselectivity (E for the homocompetitive reaction) showed the maxima against the extent of conversion (c) in all systems studied and its correlation was different depending on the substrate and solvent. The optical resolution of (S)-2-alkanol with above 95% of enantiomeric excess (ee) was attained by controlling c. Low or moderate ee was observed in the resolution of (R) isomer from the racemate owing to low or moderate enantioselectivity. The resolution from enantiomerically enriched alcohol was carried out: the ee values of the resolved alcohols showed an excellent agreement with those determined by the previously reported equations using the optical resolution data and (R)- and (S)-2-alkanols with high ee could be resolved by controlling c and the initial optical purity of the substrate. Optically pure (R)- and (S)-2-octanols (ee≥99%) were resolved from racemic 2-octanol by repeating the transesterification three times and twice, respectively.
Fatty hydroxamic acids (FHA) have been successfully synthesized from palm oils by a one-step lipase catalyzed reaction. The use of immobilized lipase as the catalyst for the preparation reaction provides an easy isolation of the enzyme from the products and other components in the reaction mixture. In addition, it also allows the reaction to be carried out under mild conditions, which reduces the reaction’s side products. The percentages of conversion of commercial palm olein (CPOn), RBD (refined, bleached and deodorized) palm olein (POn), RBD palm oil (PO), RBD palm stearin (PS) and RBD palm kernel olein (PKOn) into their fatty hydroxamic acids are 89, 79, 77, 90 and 98, respectively.
Refined and bleached sesame oil (Sesamum indicum L.) contains sesame lignans, mainly sesamin and episesamin, and they are isolated from refined sesame oil. The in vitro antioxidant properties of sesame lignans and sesamol are investigated on oxidative modification of human plasma, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and erythrocyte membrane lipid. Blood samples are collected from diabetic and non-diabetic (normal) healthy individuals. Sesame lignans and sesamol are added at 0.05% and 0.1% concentrations to plasma, LDL and erythrocyte membrane isolated from the respective blood samples and peroxidations are determined against control samples. A significant increase of peroxidation levels was observed consequently in diabetic control blood and the non-diabetic control blood. Sesamol and sesame lignans decreased lipid peroxidation. The findings suggest that sesamol and sesame lignans (mainly sesamin and episesamin) are potentially effective antioxidants that can protect plasma, LDL and erythrocyte membrane from oxidation which may be effective in reducing the risk of coronary heart disease in diabetes.
For clarification of physiological effects of dietary maize and yeast sphingolipids on colon cancer in vivo, we investigated the effects of dietary maize and yeast cerebrosides on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) -induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation in mouse large intestine. After 10 weeks of maize and yeast cerebroside feeding and DMH administration, DMH-induced ACF formation was significantly suppressed in all large intestines of these mice. When lipids in the feces of mice fed maize and yeast cerebrosides were analyzed, maize and yeast cerebrosides decomposed by intestinal enzyme and/or microflora were observed. The present study demonstrated that DMH-induced ACF formation could be inhibited in mouse large intestine by maize and yeast cerebrosides. Daily ingestion of these compounds may serve to suppress colon carcinoma in humans.
Bis(sodium sulfate) surfactants each bearing two alkyl groups were easily prepared by the acid-catalyzed transesterification of diethyl tartrate with fatty alcohols (octyl, decyl, or dodecyl) and subsequent sulfation with sulfamic acid without any expensive reagents and special equipment. These surfactants had better water-solubility, smaller critical micelle concentration (cmc) and lower surface tension at cmc compared to sodium dodecylsulfate and sodium tetradecylsulfate. These surfactants bearing octyl or decyl chains had low-foaming properties and good solubility in hard water. They decomposed easily into nonsurface-active species under acidic or alkaline conditions. Their biodegradabilities were almost the same as that of sodium dodecanoate.