This study highlights the use of red palm oil (RPO) as an alternative to dairy fat in a hard ice cream sample in the presence of different stabilizers; maltodextrin (MALTOD) and modified starch (MSTARCH). No stabilizer was added in the control sample (CO), while the different ratios of RPO to each stabilizer were 4:1, 3:2, and 2:3, coded as MALTOD1, MALTOD2, MALTOD3 for maltodextrin, and MSTARCH1, MSTARCH2, and MSTARCH3 for modified starch, respectively. These samples were compared regarding overrun, physical, and sensory properties. For MALTOD, sample MALTOD3 had the highest overrun (49.31±13.78%), while MALTOD2 had the highest viscosity (7.90±0.03 Pa.s) and hardness (1.09±0.07 kg), and MALTOD1 had the lowest melting properties (61.10±0.20%). For MSTARCH, sample MSTARCH1 had the highest hardness (3.39±0.07 kg), MSTARCH2 had the highest overrun (67.64±2.27%), and MSTARCH3 had the highest viscosity (8.19±0.24 Pa.s) and the lowest melting properties (39.83±0.20%). Samples MALTOD3 and MSTARCH1 were selected for comparison with commercial samples in terms of sensory acceptance and preference. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the sensory acceptability of MALTOD3 and MSTARCH1. However, both samples received a significantly lower (p < 0.05) ranking than the commercial samples in terms of appearance, texture, flavour, meltability, and overall acceptance. Future studies are recommended to improve the RPO-based ice cream sample, particularly in terms of its sensory properties.
Oleofoams have garnered significant attention in many personal care applications because of their favorable physicochemical properties, including texture and detergency. To explore the potential use of mixtures of high-melting-point fat crystals (tribehenoyl-glycerol [BBB]) and edible oils as low-cost and stable aeration systems, we created oleofoams composed of olive oil and BBB. By whipping the BBB/olive oil oleogels after rapid cooling and subsequent heating, we successfully prepared oleofoams without emulsifier additives. Mixtures of the BBB/olive oil formed oleofoams at BBB concentrations of 4.0-20.0 wt.%. The resultant oleofoams maintained their overrun rates and did not coalesce, even with additional whipping after the overrun rate was maximized. More closely packed bubbles, concentrated bubble size distributions, and stronger interfacial elasticity were attributed to the increasing BBB concentrations, and the thermal results revealed that further heating was required to damage the foam structure. The characteristics of these new oleofoams are closely related to their BBB concentrations, and the observed effects are attributed to the network structure of the thickened crystal layer and enhanced gelling in the oil phase.
Alkali series with different atomic numbers affect the physicochemical properties of aqueous solutions. The micellar properties of aqueous solutions of dodecanoate as surfactants were measured by changing the counterions (C12-Na, C12-K, C12-Rb, and C12-Cs). A plot of Krafft temperature vs. alkali metal atomic number showed a downward convex curve, with its minimum temperature (20°C) in the C12-K system. By contrast, a plot of the critical micelle concentration (CMC) vs. alkali metal atomic number exhibited an upward convex curve with the maximum CMC (25.6 mmol L-1) at C12-K. Furthermore, the minimum surface tension (γ min ) of the solution at the CMC increased with increasing atomic number (C12-Na ≈ C12-K < C12-Rb < C12-Cs). The size of the dodecanoate micelles decreased with increasing atomic number. The ionization degree of the micelles also increased with increasing atomic number of the alkali metal. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements revealed that alkali dodecanoate micelles formed spherical to ellipsoidal structures. In addition, micelles from the shell region showed large electrostatic repulsion, judging from the shape of the spectrum in the higher Q -1 region. From the measurement results of the solubilization of naphthalene into the micelles, the size of the micelles corresponded to the maximum solubilization quantity of naphthalene.
Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a type of light-resistance exercise that involves exposing the body to rapid and repeated oscillations of a vibrating platform. It has been suggested that long-term WBV can improve bone mass and muscle strength. However, little is known about its effects on body composition, and the safety and efficacy of WBV have not been established. In this study, we investigated the effects of WBV on body fat loss and muscle mass maintenance or improvement in male Wistar rats fed standard or high-fat diets. We also aimed to establish a rat model for future nutritional and physiological studies. We conducted two experiments using male Wistar rats that were 3 weeks old. The rats were randomly divided into two groups: the control group and the vibration group. The rats were fed either a commercial standard diet (Experiment 1) or a high-fat diet (Experiment 2) ad libitum for 8−12 weeks. Our results showed that WBV stimulus dramatically reduced body fat accumulation in rats fed a high-fat diet but not in those fed a standard diet. This suggests that WBV may be particularly effective under dietary conditions that promote obesity. Moreover, WBV increased the mass of several skeletal muscles, which are known to have resistance exercise effects. Our findings indicate that long-term WBV is safe, with no inhibition of growth or feeding. Taken together, our results suggest that WBV may be a promising approach for preventing and treating obesity. Further research is needed to investigate the underlying mechanisms and to determine the optimal WBV for maximum benefits.
Dietary intake of medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCTs) is known to alleviate obesity. MCTs have also been suggested to beneficially influence protein metabolism. This study evaluated the effects of dietary intake of MCTs on energy restriction-induced weight control and loss of skeletal muscle. Rats were divided into the following groups: 1) AL-LCT group that received the AIN-93G-based control diet containing long-chain triacylglycerols (LCTs) ad libitum, 2) ER-LCT group fed the control diet with 30% energy restriction, and 3) ER-MCT group fed a diet containing MCTs with 30% energy restriction. After the 4-wk dietary treatment, both energy-restricted groups had significantly lower body weight than the AL-LCT group and rats in the ER-MCT group were significantly lighter than those in the ER-LCT group. In contrast, the extent of energy restriction-induced loss of skeletal muscle was not significantly different between the two energy-restricted groups, resulting in an increase in muscle mass relative to body weight in the ER-MCT group. Despite maintaining the lower body weight, dietary intake of MCTs did not further influence signaling pathways involved in protein synthesis or breakdown. These results suggest that intake of MCTs could be a valuable dietary intervention to maintain a lower body weight and increase relative muscle mass without negative effects on skeletal muscle protein metabolism.
There are significant concerns regarding the quality of vegetable oils in the food and biofuel industries. In this study, we explored the preparation of high- quality oil from high-free fatty acid (FFA) vegetable oil using an ammonia/MeOH solvent as an alkali base. Among the six tested solvents, MeOH was the most suitable for the separation of the oil and FFAs. Among the three alkali bases, ammonia enhanced the miscibility of FFAs in MeOH by forming ammonium salts. The amounts of FFAs in the upper layer and oil in the lower layer were positively correlated (r = 0.9348 and 0.9617, respectively) with MeOH. With increasing MeOH concentration, the amount of oil in the lower layer increased along with the FFAs in the upper layer. Using the molar ratio of ammonia to FFA 1:1 and the ratio (v/w) of MeOH to oil 4:3, 91.6% FFAs and 97.8% oil in the upper and lower layers, respectively, were produced from 50% FFA oil. Using a relational expression of FFAs and oil in the upper layer, 97.1% FFAs and 99.6% oil in each layer was obtained from 10% FFA oil. The oil in the lower layer was further purified by extraction with MeOH. This method is easy and efficient for the separation and purification of oil, accompanied by the reuse of reagents with almost no loss of raw materials.
The essential oil, extracted from the Hmong medicine Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC. (BBO), is a purely natural wound repair agent. Its application has, however, been restricted due to its low solubility and high volatility properties. In this study, we have developed a nanoemulsion formulation to improve the characteristics of BBO. The particle size of the nanoemulsion was normally distributed, and 71% of its range was concentrated between 10-100 nm, with an average particle size of 62.8 nm and an encapsulation rate of 98%. After 7 days of application, the wound healing rate of the BBO nanoemulsion (BBO-NE) group was 1.5 times higher than that of the normal BBO group. Along with histological observations, nanoemulsion formulation has been demonstrated to significantly improve the efficacy of BBO for wound repair. In addition, inflammation-related TLR4, CD14 and IRAK-1 gene transcript levels were significantly reduced after the administration of BBO-NE compared to the BBO group, with downregulation of 47.8%, 35.7% and 57.8%, respectively, while the secretion of pro-inflammatory factors IL-6 and TNF-α was also significantly reduced by 83.8% and 32.7%, respectively, in the nanoformulation administration (BBO-NE) group compared to the BBO group. In contrast, the anti-inflammatory factor IL-10 was significantly increased by 4.2-fold. It was further found that the drug penetration per unit area increased significantly 6.30% to 19.5% at different time points after the application of the BBO-NE compared to the BBO. In conclusion, nano-formulation enhanced the drug penetration of the BBO, reduced inflammatory factors, increased the level of anti-inflammatory factors, and promoted collagen deposition, thereby accelerating wound repair.
The effects of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and diallyl disulfide (DADS), widely found in edible vegetables, on thermal isomerization of unsaturated fatty acid esters (oleic acid methyl ester [OA-ME], linoleic acid methyl ester [LA-ME], and eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester [EPA-EE]) were investigated. Although heating with AITC and DADS significantly promoted cis to trans isomerization of all fatty acid esters, the isomerization trends varied greatly depending on the type of fatty acid. Specifically, AITC promoted thermal isomerization of OA-ME and LA-ME more efficiently than DADS; however, an opposite result was obtained for EPA-EE. For example, when OA-ME was heated at 180°C for 1 h with 1.0 equivalent of AITC and DADS, its trans isomer ratios reached 29.0 ± 7.1 and 7.6 ± 0.6%, respectively, and when EPA-EE was heated under the same conditions, its trans isomer ratios reached 4.2 ± 0.4 and 8.6 ± 0.2%, respectively. These results indicate that isothiocyanates and polysulfides would promote the formation of trans fatty acids in food processing under heating conditions.