This study develops simple techniques for increasing production yield and refining of crude RBO (CRBO). It was found that pre-heating of rice bran by hot air oven to reach 60°C before being extracted by screw press machine increased the yield from 4.8 to 8.3%w/w. This paper suggested three simple steps for refining of organic CRBO: (1) filtering using filter papers (2) sedimentation by adding 4%w/v fuller's earth and (3) bleaching by running through a packed column of activated carbon. These steps significantly enhanced the qualities of RBO when compared to CRBO before treatment. It was found that the lightness of oil as indicated by color value (L*) increased from 22.8 to 28.7, gum and wax decreased from 3.6 to 1.3%w/w. However, the simple refining method had no effect on peroxide value and free fatty acid content. Moreover, it slightly induced the loss of oryzanol content from 2.8 to 2.2%w/w.
Lipase enzyme producing bacteria, Pseudomonas sp., have been grown at varying oil concentrations to make it adaptive for high oil concentrations and it was found to show the maximum growth and maximum lipase activity when 40- and 30-vol% of oil respectively was used as a source of carbon in growth medium. Bacteria was immobilized with sodium alginate and used as whole cell catalyst for the transesterification of used cotton seed oil. Preliminary experiments resulted about 70% transesterification of used cotton seed oil with methanol as calculated by proton NMR technique.
The fungal strain Mortierella alliacea YN-15 is a promising industrial producer of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), in particular arachidonic acid. In order to more efficiently produce PUFAs, the metabolism of an externally supplied plant oil, α-linolenic acid (ALA)-rich linseed triacylglycerol (TAG), was examined, and time-dependent changes in the composition of its lipid and fatty acid metabolites were traced. Addition of linseed TAG to growing cultures resulted in a transient increase in extracellular 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG), and even more so of 1,3-DAG, in the mycelia. This was followed by a decrease in both DAGs and an increase in TAG. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a desaturated and elongated product of ALA, accumulated to a greater extent in cellular phospholipids than in neutral lipids. Moreover, the addition of ALA in free fatty acid form to the culture led to the generation of EPA. However, EPA production was not observed upon addition of ALA-rich 1,2- or 1,3-DAG, indicating that fatty acids released from exogenous lipids were used for resynthesis of mycelial TAG. These results suggested that TAG might be hydrolyzed by extracellular lipases, whereas its synthesis might be catalyzed by intracellular enzymes. Appropriate regulation of such enzymes might be an effective strategy to enhance PUFA production under plant oil supplementation.
The conventional offset lithographic printing ink is mainly based on linseed oil. But in recent years, due to stiff competition from synthetic substitutes mainly from petroleum products, the crop production shrinks down to an unsustainable level, which increases the price of linseed oil. Though soyabean oil has replaced a major portion of linseed oil, it is also necessary to develop alternate cost effective vegetable oils for printing ink industry. The present study aims to evaluate the performance of karanja oil (Pongamia glabra) as an alternative of linseed oil in the formulation of offset printing ink because karanja oil is easily available in rural India. Physical properties of raw karanja oil are measured and compared with that of alkali refined linseed oil. Rosin modified phenolic resin based varnishes were made with linseed oil as well as with karanja oil and their properties are compared. Sheetfed offset inks of process colour yellow and cyan is chosen to evaluate the effect of karanja oil in ink properties. In conclusion, karanja oil can be accepted as an alternate vegetable oil source with its noticeable effect on print and post print properties with slower drying time on paper. However, the colour and odour of the oil will restrict its usage on offset inks.
A study was conducted to demonstrate that nanometer-thick titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films could be prepared by the hydrolysis of titanium potassium oxalate using octadecylamine (ODA) Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films as templates. The amount of TiO2 generated in the LB film was found to be proportional to the number of deposited ODA layers, which enables precise control of the TiO2 film thickness. After heat treatment of the LB films at 300-600°C, the photocatalytic activities of the resulting TiO2 films were determined from the decomposition of stearic acid cast films when irradiated with UV light for different time periods. Higher photocatalytic activity was observed in TiO2 films heat treated at lower temperatures.
The usefulness of liquid crystals (LC) in topical formulations for application to skin was evaluated by measuring the in vitro permeation profile of a model compound, calcein, entrapped in a LC formulation, through excised hairless rat skin and a three-dimensional cultured human-skin model; the viability was determined using the MTT assay. Two physically stable LCs were prepared from a mixture of mono-, di-, and tri-esters 1, and monoesters 2, composed of erythritol and phytanylacetic acid. Cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), electron diffraction patterns, and small-angle X-ray diffraction (SAXS) observations of the LC nanodispersions showed that the structures of the LCs were reverse hexagonal (LC-A) and cubic (LC-B). The skin-permeation properties of calcein were enhanced by entrapping in the LCs as a result of the increase in calcein partition from the LC dispersion solution into the skin; the properties were analyzed using a skin-permeation–time profile. Drug partitioning could also be modified by the LC structure. No skin damage was caused by the LC formulation in these experiments. The present study suggests that LC dispersions are potential additives in topical drug formulations and cosmetic formulations.
The present work focuses on the synthesis of fattythioic acids (FTAs) by a one-step lipase catalyzed reaction of palm oil with carbonothioic S,S-acid using Lipozyme. The product was characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) technique and elemental analysis. The effects of various reaction parameters such as reaction time, temperature, amount of enzyme, molar ratio of substrates, and various organic solvents of the reaction system were investigated. The optimum conditions to produce FTAs were respectively, incubation time, 20 h, temperature, 40°C, amount of enzyme, 0.05 g and molar ratio of carbonothioic S,S-acid to palm oil, 5.0:1.0. Hexane was the best solvent for this reaction. The conversion of the products at optimum conditions was around 91%.