Now it is recognized that DHA is oxidatively stable fatty acid compared with linoleic acid (LA) in emulsified system, although DHA is oxidatively unstable in a bulk system. In fact, an emulsified mixture of DHA and LA behaves as in a bulk system, namely the oxidative stability of DHA becomes lower than that of LA. Therefore, in this study, tridocosahexaenoate (DDD) and glycerol trilinoleate (LLL) were separately emulsified using TritonX-100 as an emulsifier and DDD emulsion was mixed with the oxidizing LLL emulsion using a water-soluble radical initiator, 2,2'-azobis(2-aminopropane) dihydrochloride. As a result, DHA suppressed the oxidation of LA, while DHA was not significantly oxidized. This suppression ability was examined using glycerol trieicosapentaenoate, glycerol trilinolenate, or glycerol trioleate instead of DDD and it was found that this activity was increased with the increasing number of double bonds in the structure. Furthermore, the same type of experiment was carried out using a lipid-soluble radical initiator, 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile and the similar result was obtained. These results indicated that a highly polyunsaturated fatty acid might act as an antioxidant in an emulsion system oxidized by an azo compound.
Structured oils prepared by enzymatic transacylation with triacylglycerols (TAGs) and various fatty acids (FAs) were characterized. Transacylation with trilaurin and saturated FAs (C4:0-C16:0) was performed using Lipozyme RM-IM under standard reaction conditions. The structured oils thus produced had transacylation ratios of 25-37%, as medium-chain FAs > long-chain FAs > short-chain FAs. This result confirmed that short-chain FAs have little reactivity in enzymatic transacylation. All prepared oils shared the same composition of TAG molecular species, as demonstrated by HPLC analysis, and contained a mixture of mono-substituted, di-substituted, and non-substituted TAGs. The reaction conditions for transacylation with TAGs and short-chain FAs were optimized to improve transacylation ratios. The introduction ratios of C4:0, C5:0, and C6:0 into trilaurin were increased to 52.4, 42.5, and 34.1%, respectively, by extending the reaction time. Transacylation between TAGs and short-chain FAs was further examined by using Lipase PL. C4:0 was introduced at 51.1%, the same ratio as for Lipozyme RM-IM. When C5:0 and C6:0 were used as the FA substrate, the transacylation ratios obtained were 47.7 and 43.4%, respectively, higher than those for Lipase RM-IM. Lipase PL is therefore useful for introducing short-chain FAs into TAGs.
A fatty hydrazide based cationic gemini surfactants, 1,3-bis (N'-acyl-N,N-dimethylhydrazinium) propane dibromide which possess hydrolyzable amido moieties in the lipophilic portions, were prepared by reacting 1,3-bromopropane with N,N-dimethyl fatty hydrazide. The surface properties were explained and discussed based on the effect of their chemical structures. The micelle-forming ability, foaming ability, and foam stability were evaluated. The prepared surfactants also showed some antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus) but they were not active against gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, P. aeruginosa), yeast (Candida albicans), and molds (Aspergillus niger).
While screening for antioxidative carotenoids from marine bacteria, we isolated and identified sarcinaxanthin and its glucosylated compounds (sarcinaxanthin monoglucoside and sarcinaxanthin diglucoside) from a moderately halophilic bacterium-Micrococcus yunnanensis strain AOY-1. In the singlet oxygen (1O2) quenching model, the IC50 values of the antioxidative activities of these carotenoids were as follows: sarcinaxanthin , 57 μM; sarcinaxanthin monoglucoside, 54 μM; and sarcinaxanthin diglucoside, 74 μM. In addition, the complete proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) assignments of sarcinaxanthin monoglucoside pentaacetate and sarcinaxanthin diglucoside octaacetate, and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (FAB-MS/MS) analyses of sarcinaxanthin and sarcinaxanthin monoglucoside are reported for the first time.
The crystal structure of the photoinduced electron transfer (PET) fluoroionophore (3) was clarified by X-ray crystallographic analysis. A molecule 3 sits on a center of symmetry such that two anthracene ring systems are in an anti conformation with respect to one another across the piperazine ring. Intermolecular C-H···π and &pi···π interactions are observed. It was found that 3 was displayed unique photophysical properties in the presence of guest cations. Complexation of 3 with Zn2+ and NH4+ increased the fluorescence intensities of the host by a factor of 20.
Ketoprofen is a potent non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug has been used in the treatment of various kinds of pains, inflammation and arthritis. However, oral administration of ketoprofen produces serious gastrointestinal adverse effects. One of the promising methods to overcome these adverse effects is to administer the drug through the skin. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects from topically applied ketoprofen entrapped palm oil esters (POEs) based nanoemulsion and to compare with market ketoprofen product, Fastum® gel. The novelty of this study is, use of POEs for the oil phase of nanoemulsion. The anti-inflammatory and analgesic studies were performed on rats by carrageenan-induced rat hind paw edema test and carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia pain threshold test to compare the ketoprofen entrapped POEs based nanoemulsion formulation and market formulation. Results indicated that there are no significant different between ketoprofen entrapped POEs nanoemulsion and market formulation in carrageenan-induced rat hind paw edema study and carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia pain threshold study. However, it shows a significant different between POEs nanoemulsion formulation and control group in these studies at p<0.05. From these results it was concluded that the developed nanoemulsion have great potential for topical application of ketoprofen.
A tubular-type solar photoreactor system powered by commercial solar panels and consisting of six 20-tube modules (Pyrex glass) to mimic a pilot plant scale configuration was designed and constructed to examine the remediation of simulated wastewaters contaminated with various classes of organic pollutants such as endocrine disruptors (e.g. bisphenol A), anionic surfactants (sodium butylnaphthalenesulfonate and sodium dodecyl- benzenesulfonate), herbicides (e.g. 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and a commercial dishwasher detergent. Photo-oxidative processes followed first-order kinetics expressed in terms of the total light energy (in kJ) that impinged on the photoreactor. The influence of TiO2 loading and circulation flow rate of the wastewaters on the dynamics of the photo-oxidation to mineralization (loss of total organic carbon, TOC, or formation of sulfate ions) was investigated. The optimal operational parameters were: TiO2 loading, 2 g L-1; circulation flow rate, 7.5 L min-1. On a sunny day, near- quantitative mineralization of the contaminants was achieved after only 4 h of irradiation that corresponded to an accumulated energy of ca 1380 kJ.