Real-time Raman measurements of graphite are performed during and after deuterium ion irradiation at sample temperatures between 353K and 473K. There are two distinct thermal relaxation processes, i. e. fast and slow ones. The activation energy of the fast process is 0.91±0.15eV and is comparable with that for helium ion irradiation. The activation energy of the slow process is 0.25±0.11 eV and is obviously different from that for helium ion irradiation (1.8±0.3eV).
We developed a newly designed radical beam source for the synthesis of high quality ceramic thin films. Radical species were generated by an electrodeless radio frequency discharge of 13.56 MHz. We succeeded in generation of stable atomic oxygen beam which contained few ionic species. Intensity of the beam was as high as 1.4×1016 atoms/cm2·s at 5 cm from the end of beam source. Epitaxial thin films of anatase form of TiO2 and TiN were synthesized on MgO (100) single crystal substrates by using oxygen radical beam and nitrogen radical beam, respectively.
In our previous paper on Takeoff Angle-Dependent X-Ray Fluorescence (TAD-XRF) method, the dependence of fluorescent X-ray intensity on the takeoff angle is measured, and it is also shown that the characterization of thin films is possible by using the method. In this paper, we present a newly developed analytical method, Glancing-Incidence and -Takeoff X-Ray Fluorescence (GIT-XRF) method, to measure the TAD-XRF curves at various incident angles of the primary X-ray. Compared with conventional total reflection X-ray fluorescence methods, GIT-XRF has unique advantages: (1) The observation depth for the fluorescent X-rays is restricted by both the incident and takeoff angles. Therefore, when the incident angle and the takeoff angle are set to below the critical angle for total reflection, the observation depth becomes extremely small, and a surfacesensitive analysis is achieved. (2) In GIT-XRF, the TAD-XRF curves are measured at various incident angles, and thus the thin film is cross-checked with many experimental curves, and moredetailed analysis of the thin film has been possible. In this paper, the GIT-XRF of Mn/Au double-layers is reported, and the characteristics of the GIT-XRF method for the surface and thin-film analysis are shown.
Atomic force microscopy has been used to investigate the surface morphology changes of the SrTiO3(100) surface prepared by polishing and annealing at 900∼1300K under an oxygen atmosphere of 0.1 MPa. Atomically-flat terracestep structures have been obtained by annealing at 1100 K. Annealing at 1300 K, however, resulted in morphology changes from flat to rough and non-facet surfaces.