Materials design has been a long term issue in the materials science. So far, new materials have been discovered by numerous trial and errors, by experts’ inspiration, by experts’ guess…. No well-defined prescription has been established for materials design. A new approach for the materials science was introduced in 2011 in US by the start of MGI (Materials Genome Initiative). This approach is categorized to materials informatics and may be a powerful tool for materials design. In this article, we describe a way to materials informatics and give an introduction to data mining which is a key technology in materials informatics.
By applying the informatics to the datasets of the materials simulation, we try to find the important factors and hidden relationship in the transmission spectra of molecular junction. We generated 600 molecular configurations between the electrodes randomly. Transmission spectra are simulated for each configuration by nonequilibrium Greenʼs function method based on semi-empirical extended Hückel method. We classify the simulated spectra according to the similarity around the Fermi level by hierarchical clustering. The relationship between the average spectrum shape and molecular configurations is determined for each cluster. The relationship can be understood from the coupling between the molecular orbitals and electronic states of electrodes, which is physically reasonable. The results of this study prove the usefulness of the informatics for analysis on materials simulations. Our scheme can be applied not only to the transmission spectra but also to other spectra in general.
It is known that the precise analysis of electron spectroscopy such as XPS requires a great deal of knowledge and experience on the creation and transportation of signal electrons in a solid. It, therefore, inhibits the productivity of the electron spectroscopy. The simulation softwares of the electron spectroscopy are useful for the analysts, but are not fully satisfactory owing to the model-dependence of the simulated results. The solution method of inverse problem of the analysis of electron spectroscopy can step over the limited productivity by data-mining of electron spectra and relevant database. To realize the method, we developed the underlying technologies like a common data format and auto peak fitting algorithm for electron spectroscopies. We described an example of the solution method of inverse problem to extract energy loss functions by the factor analysis of angle-dependent and primary-energy-dependent REELS spectra for GaAs.
Materials exploration for the functional materials are always essential, but this process is often time and cost demanding and uncertain. Recently, intensive efforts are made to develop “high-throughput computational materials exploration” in order to discover effectively the best materials with targeted properties. Present review article introduces the concept and several examples on the development of high-throughput computations, in particular for battery materials.
Examples of materials design on surface/interface composition and work function that utilizes already existing materials information in multi-disciplinary way are demonstrated. The method of materials design through multi-disciplinary use of materials information, materials curation, is explained.
The comprehension of supersaturated phenomena in solution is one of the most important issue. For example, development of industrial crystallization processes, elucidation of bio-mineralization process, and protein abnormal aggregation process. In this study, we focused on the development of a novel method to observe the solution structure of supersaturated solution in nano-scale level by monitoring dissolved gold nanocrystals dynamics also known as Diffracted X-ray Tracking (DXT). From this study, we established a dissolution system of gold nanocrystals on the sodium acetate solution (6.4 M) and we succeeded in observing rotational dynamics of a dispersed single gold nanocrystal in 100 μs time scale resolution.