To understand the cellular mechanisms that lead to the generation of synaptic plasticity of neuronal cells, it is important to understand the intracellular responses of neuronal cells stimulated via synaptic transmission. The stimulation of mouse cerebellar granule cells via NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors caused an increase in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-binding activities to TRE (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-responsive element) and CRE (adenosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate-responsive element) motifs, depending upon the presence of extracellular Ca2+. The increases in TRE-and CRE-binding activities were also detected with the stimulation of non-NMDA receptors by kainate. The increases in TRE-and CRE-binding activities were both mediated by the same DNA-binding complexes whose binding affinity to CRE was about three-fold higher than that to TRE. On the other hand, the stimulation of neuroblastoma×glioma hybrid NG 108-15 via muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, α2-adrenergic receptors and bradykinin receptors caused a rapid induction of zif/268. An additive effect on the induction of zif/268 was observed when the different stimuli were simultaneously added. Thus, it is extremely likely that signals transduced via synaptic transmission are transferred to the level of gene expression and evoke some events which might contribute to the generation of synaptic plasticity in neuronal cells. In addition, we have found that the direct injection of plasmid DNAs into mouse skeletal muscle with fructose, glucose or NaCl solution led to a long-term expression of the introduced gene in muscle cells.
The pharmaceutical studies carried out by the author during 40 years were reviewed from the viewpoint of molecular interaction. Included subjects are : electrostatic interaction between drug ions, ion pair formation and its partition to organic phase, drug solubilization by adjuvants, partition of drugs between aqueous and micellar phases, cyclodextrin inclusions, human serum albumin binding and drug stability related to the esterase-like activity of the albumin, and oral liposome preparation of vitamin K1. The drug stabilities related to those molecular interactions were emphasized.
Laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) has a potential to be developed as a sensitive and solid-phase analytical method and was applied to enzyme immunoassay. The test sample for immunoassay was prepared by adsorbing multi-component immunoglobulins on a nitrocellulose membrane filter. Human λ-and κ-chains, which are used as a principal indication of malignant lymphoreticular disease, and immunoglobulin G were used as model proteins, and PAS immunoassay was applied to the individual detection of these three proteins in the urine. Furthermore, in order to develop a sensitive analysis for particular biological components in tissues or cells, laser photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) and video intensified microscopy (VIM) were developed. PAM was shown to be applicable to the detection and quantification of human λ-chain in a micro-region of the tissue sections of the human fetal spleen and pancreas. VIM was applied to the detection of stimulation-response processes in a cell. By using neutrophils which are stimulated by many substances and produce active oxidants as the results, dynamic changes in the stimulation-response process in a living cell were visualized as fluorescence or chemiluminescence images by the VIM system.
A simple method using ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography was established for the rapid and precise determination of synephrine in oriental pharmaceutical decoctions containing Aurantii Nobilis Pericarpium. An ODS column and a mixture of water, acetonitrile, sodium dodecyl sulfate and phosphoric acid (65 : 35 : 0.5 : 0.1) as a mobile phase were used for the separation. Synephrine was eluted without interference by other co-existing components within 15 min.
Soluble (Fr. 1) and membrane (Fr. 2) fractions were prepared from the cell-free extract of Hyphomicrobium neptunium ATCC 15444, and their effects on the oxidization of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) were studied. When H2S gas was supplied to Fr. 1 and Fr. 2, sulfur in both fractions and the majority of thiosulfate ion in Fr. 1 were detected. The sulfide-oxidizing activity in Fr. 2 but not in Fr. 1 was inhibited by the addition of diethyldithiocarbamate, suggesting that Fr. 1 and Fr. 2 have different types of sulfide-oxidase, and that Fr. 2 would include cytochrome c dependent sulfide oxidase. It was also found that thiosulfate ion was formed from sulfur and sulfite ion by adding Fr. 1. However, the pronase-treatment of Fr. 1 did not influence on the formation of thiosulfate ion. These results suggest that H2S was oxidized to sulfur and sulfite ion by two types of sulfide oxidase and sulfur oxidase in H. neptunium ATCC 15444, and that the sulfite ion changed rapidly to thiosulfate through a non-enzymatic reaction with sulfur.
The mechanism involved in the renal excretion of disopyramide (DPM) is still incompletely understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the renal handling of DPM and the interactions between DPM and several organic anionic or cationic drugs related to the renal tubular secretion, using the renal clearance and renal cortical slices uptake techniques in rats. The clearance ratio of DPM was greater than that of glomerular filtration and this suggests the tubular secretion of DPM. The clearance ratio of DPM did not change after infusion of either anionic drugs (p-aminohippurate and probenecid) or a cationic drug (cimetidine). The results of time and concentration-dependent experiments using renal cortical slices demonstrated that DPM was accumulated against a concentration gradient by a saturable process. Inhibition of uptake by 2, 4-dinitrophenol and cyanide indicated an energy dependence. DPM uptake was considerably inhibited by the cationic drugs, cimetidine and quinine, suggesting that DPM was transported by the cation transport mechanism. Probenecid, a competitor for the anion transport mechanism, moderately inhibited DPM uptake.
Limonoids and their glucosides in the seeds and barks of Phellondendron amurense (Kihada) were analyzed. The seeds contained limonin (1950 ppm), obakunone (20 ppm), limonin 17-β-D-glucopyranoside (820 ppm) and obakunone 17-β-D-glucopyranoside (1360 ppm). The barks contained limonin (6760 ppm), obakunone (1240 ppm) and nomilin (270 ppm).