1. In order to understand the differences in pH optima and reaction rates of RNase A towards low molecular weight substrates and polymer substrates, the subsite structure of bovine pancreatic RNase A was studied. The kinetic studies of various sizes of oligouridylic acids showed that the size of the subsite is three nucleotides long. The kinetic studies on the inhibition of pUp, X-ray crystallo-graphies of RNase A-ApC and pTp complexes, 31P-NMR studies on the binding of RNase A-pAp, and pTp showed the presence of P0, P2 and B3 sites. The location of the P0 site was assigned to be Lys66 by X-ray crystallography of the RNase A-pTp complex. The location of the P2 and/or P3/B3 site was determined by studying the enzymatic activities of several S-peptide analogs in which N-Leu was substituted for Lys7 and/or Lys1 coupled with S-protein toward various chain lengths of oligouridylic acids. The experiment suggested that P2 is Lys7 and P3/B3 is Lys1. 2. Several new pyrimidine base specific RNases were isolated and their primary structures were determind. They were two non-secretory RNases, a bovine liver alkaline RNase, a bovine brain RNase, and a bullfrog liver RNase. The bovine brain RNase has extra 16 amino acids at the C-terminus with O-glycosylated Ser. The bullfrog liver RNase was an extremely heat-stable RNase so far known. 3. Two new RNases belonging to RNase T1 family were isolated and their primary structures were elucidated. They were RNases isolated from Aspergillus saitoi and a mushroom (hiratake). The former RNsase has a similar structure to RNase T1, but it was a base non-specific and guanylic acid preferential enzyme. From the results of X-crystallographic studies of this RNase, we suggested that the mechanism of RNase T1 RNase is essentialy a general acid-base catalysis between His40 and Glu58. 4. We isolated several fungal, plant and animal base non-specific acid RNases with a molecular mass about 24 kDa or more, and elucidated their primary structures. These RNases contain two sequences containing common 7-8 amino acid residues in common which include most of the amino acid residues important for the catalysis. Therefore, we proposed to designate these RNases as RNase T2 family RNase. On the basis of chemical modifications, kinetic studies and protein engineering studies of RNase Rh from Rhizopus niveus and RNase M from A. saitoi, we assigned that the catalytic site of RNase Rh consists of His46, His104, His109, Glu105, and Lys108. In the mechanism we proposed for RNase Rh, His46 and His109 work as a general acid and base catalysts. His104 was a phosphate binding site, and Glu105 and Lys108 might work to polarize a P=O bond of the substrate or stabilize the pentacovalent intermediate. However, in the reverse reaction of the transfer reaction step and the hydrolysis step of RNase Rh, His109 and His46 work as an acid and base catalyst, respectively. The X-ray crystallographic studies of RNase Rh, an RNase Rh-2'-AMP or d(ApC)complex, and the protein engineering studies of several mutant enzymes assigned the components of the major base recognition site (B1 site) and the minor base recognition site (B2 sites) of RNase Rh. The enzymatic studies of several mutant enzymes indicated that (i) Asp51 is very crucial for adenine base recognition, and the replacement of Asp51 by other amino acid, such as Thr, Ser, Glu, Asn makes RNase Rh more guanylic acid preferential, (ii) the replacement of Trp49 by Phe, and Tyr57 by Trp make the enzyme more pyrimidine and purine bases preferential, respectively. These trials are the first example of marked artificial change in the base specificity of RNases.
Monensin (1) is a representative compound of polyether ionophore antibiotics, which selectively transport Na+ ions. In order to obtain potent Na+ ionophores, the modification of the carboxyl group of monensin was carried out to yield monensylamino acids (2) and monensylamino acid-1, 29-lactones (3). The Na+ permeability of ion through the erythrocyte membrane of 2 and 3 was evaluated by the 23Na-NMR method. Compound 2 showed less Na+ ion transport activity than monensin, probably due to the lower lipophilicity caused by the conformational change of the chain moiety of the molecules. Although 3 showed higher lipophilisity than 1, 3 had no Na+ ion permeability, probably due to loss of the carboxyl group. As more lipophilic compounds possessing a carboxyl group was supposed to have more ion transport activity, 7-O-acylmonensins (8) and 7-O-alkylmonensins (11) were synthesized. Among these compounds, the value of Na+ ion permeability of 7-O-benzylmonensin (11c) was 1.4 time that of 1. Further investigation was carried out by preparing various 7-O-(substituted benzyl) monensins (13), and 7-O-(p-ethylbenzyl) monensin (13b) exhibited the largest Na+ ion permeability, about twice the value of 1. In order to convert monensin (1) to Ca2+ ionophore, 7-carboxylmethylmonensin (18) via protected 7-oxomonensin (15), and 25-carboxylmonensin (26) were prepared. In the course of the synthesis, 15 was clarified as a useful intermediate to give 7-amino and 7-alkyl derivatives. Ca2+ ion transport activities of 18 and 26 were determined by a CHCl3 liquid membrane system. 25-carboxylmonensin (26) showed 70% of the activity of Ca2+ ionophore, lasalocid A, and compound 26 could be the lead compound for the preparation of a new Ca2+ ionophore.
An interest in compounds having both the quenching activity of the active oxygen species (antioxidant activity) and hypoglycemic and/or hypolipidemic activities significantly increases in the field of angiopathic disease, especially in the elderly. We studied hindered phenols in order to find biologically active compounds having the above activities. As a result, several compounds, such as 1, 3-benzoxathioles, phenoxypentanoic acids, phenoxypentanols, 2-chloro-3-phe-nylpropionic acids, and thiazolidines, were found. Among these compounds, a thiazolidine, troglitazone, (CS-045), 1, showed desired biological properties both in vitro and in vivo without causing any increase in liver weight, and so was developed as a new type of antidiabetic agent. In this review, the structural design and the biological activities including antioxidant activities are described.
In a previous paper we reported that 2-(p-hydroxyarylbutadienyl) benzoxazoles are highly potent 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors. We synthesized their ethenyl homologues and benzothiazole derivatives, and evaluated their 5-lipoxygenase inhibitory activity in vitro with cell-free rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-1). In most cases the replacement of benzoxazolyl with benzothiazolyl resulted in an enhancement of the activity. All compounds with butadienyl spacers tested herein exhibited strong inhibitory activities. While most of the ethenyl homologues showed weaker activities than their corresponding butadienyl homologues, some ethenyl compounds in the benzothiazole derivatives were found to be as potent as their corresponding butadienyl homologues. The inhibitory activity was also affected by the variation in the p-hydroxyaryl functionality.
The antioxidant effects of Hypsizigus marmoreus, one of the most popular Japanese edible mushrooms, were investigated by the use of the augmentation effect of antioxidant activity (AOA) in the mice plasma. An aqueous extract of the mushroom fruit-body was found to have a slight trap activity for peroxyl and alkoxyl radicals. On the other hand, the blood plasma of mice fed with a fodder containing 5-10% of the dried powder of the mushroom extract augmented significantly AOA for alkoxyl radicals. It was suggested from analysis of the plasma by the HPLC post column AOA method that the increase of AOA in the mice plasma was caused by the induction of high molecular weight fractions having AOA produced by feeding Hypsizigus marmoreus. The amount of lipoperoxide in the mice plasma as values of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances showed a tendency to be lowered by intake of Hypsizigus marmoreus. These results suggest that oral administation of the fruit-body of Hypsizigus marmoreus can induce an antioxidant effect in the mice plasma.
A sustained release suppository containing progesterone with a double-layered structure was prepared for the treatment of the luteal phase defect. Hydroxypropylcellulose-H (HPC) and Carbopol-934P (CP) were used as bases of the inner layer and Witepsol W35 was used as a base of the outer layer. The strength of the inner layer (stick) decreased with the increase of the rate of content of HPC component. The strength of the stick which was prepared from a mixture of HPC and CP in a ratio of 1 : 1, was inverse by proportional to the rate of the addition of crystalline cellulose (CC) and the amount of released drug was proportional to the rate of the addition of CC. The area under the drug release curve of the stick containing 60% of CC in the base was about 12 times of the stick containing no CC (control stick). Furthermore, the mean release time of the stick containing 60% of CC became about a half of the control stick. It was suggested that the drug release of progesterone from the stick could be controlled by changing the rate of the addition of CC. Two types of suppository which containing progesterone in both phases (suppository A) and in the stick alone (suppository B) were prepared. Both suppositories showed a sustained release property and suppository B had a lag time of two hours. When the suppositories were administered in to the vagina of rabbits, they showed a sustained release property and a rapid rise in the serum concentration was more suppressed than an ordinary Witepsol suppository. One hour after the administration of the two layered suppository, some parts of the suppository was identified macroscopically to be remained in the vagina. The usefulness of the double-layered suppository as a hospital preparation should be suggested after the attainment of the optimization of the formulation.