YAKUGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 1347-5231
Print ISSN : 0031-6903
ISSN-L : 0031-6903
138 巻 , 4 号
選択された号の論文の25件中1~25を表示しています
受賞総説
  • 金沢 貴憲
    2018 年 138 巻 4 号 p. 443-450
    発行日: 2018/04/01
    公開日: 2018/04/01
    ジャーナル フリー
     In general, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) poses a major challenge to drug development efforts targeting brain/central nervous system (CNS) diseases, since it limits the distribution of systemically administered therapeutics to the brain/ CNS. Therefore, the development of effective strategies for enhancing drug delivery to the brain has been a topic of great interest in both the clinical and pharmaceutical fields. Intranasal administration has been noted as a method for noninvasive delivery of a drug to the brain/CNS by bypassing the BBB via the “nose-to-brain” route. This nose-to-brain delivery system has the potential to be highly versatile, and a combination of this system with new drugs and siRNA shows promise in the treatment of CNS diseases. Cell-penetrating Tat peptide-modified block copolymer micelles have the potential for improving mucosal permeability and nose-to-brain transport efficiency. In addition, nano-sized drug carriers can improve nose-to-brain delivery through their ability to increase the stability of encapsulated drugs against biological degradation in the nasal cavity and brain/CNS. In this review, we introduce the assessment of and mechanisms for delivery to the brain after intranasal drug/siRNA administration with our cell-penetrating peptide-modified nano-sized polymer micelles. Our findings show that the use of polymer micelles with surface modification by cell-penetrating peptides for intranasal administration enables the noninvasive delivery of therapeutic agents to the brain/CNS by increasing the nose-to-brain transfer of the drug or siRNA administered from the nasal cavity.
  • 城野 博史
    2018 年 138 巻 4 号 p. 451-455
    発行日: 2018/04/01
    公開日: 2018/04/01
    ジャーナル フリー
     Although cancer treatment has dramatically improved with the development of molecular-targeted agents over the past decade, identifying eligible patients and predicting the therapeutic effects remain a major challenge. Because intratumoral heterogeneity represents genetic and molecular differences affecting patients' responses to these therapeutic agents, establishing individualized medicine based on precise molecular pathological analysis of tumors is urgently required. This review focuses on the pathogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), a common head and neck neoplasm, and introduces our approaches toward developing novel anticancer therapies particularly based on clinical molecular pathogenesis. Deeper understanding of more precise molecular pathogenesis in clinical settings may open up novel strategies for establishing individualized medicine for OSCC.
誌上シンポジウム
  • 小出 隆規
    2018 年 138 巻 4 号 p. 457-458
    発行日: 2018/04/01
    公開日: 2018/04/01
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 榎木 英介
    2018 年 138 巻 4 号 p. 459-464
    発行日: 2018/04/01
    公開日: 2018/04/01
    ジャーナル フリー
     Cases of research misconduct (fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism) have been increasing worldwide, including in Japan. In particular, since 2006, many cases of research misconduct have been reported in Japan, and these cases have also been covered by the media. The 2014 case of the withdrawal of articles on STAP cells followed a rare course in which research misconduct became a full-blown social phenomenon. In recent years, even the University of Tokyo has experienced reported cases of research misconduct. In this report, I would like to introduce some representative cases of research misconduct in the field of life sciences over the past decade. These examples include studies conducted at Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine (2006), Osaka University Graduate School of Frontier Bioscience (2006), Ryukyu University School of Medicine (2010), Toho University School of Medicine (2012), The University of Tokyo Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences (2013), and several cases outside of Japan. I will discuss what researchers should do to reduce the incidence of research misconduct. In addition, I will discuss how these cases were covered by the media, because the public's impression of research misconduct is formed by media coverage.
  • 安井 裕之
    2018 年 138 巻 4 号 p. 465-471
    発行日: 2018/04/01
    公開日: 2018/04/01
    ジャーナル フリー
     The revised model/core curriculum for pharmaceutical education in Japan was introduced in 2015. The need to provide ethics education, which includes research integrity for pharmacists and those conducting pharmaceutical research, was clearly described in the document: “G: pharmaceutical research (2) rule of law and ethics essential for research activity.” Additionally, this newly introduced model/core curriculum was officially requested within each pharmaceutical university. As recently as 2014, a severe situation was exposed in the field of life sciences and clinical research: many reports emerged about scientific misconduct in Japan. The members of Kyoto Pharmaceutical University were deeply concerned about this situation and thus decided that our guidelines of action for research integrity would be approached as follows: All members of Kyoto Pharmaceutical University would individually rethink the university's research integrity and ethics with a strong sense of ownership and importance, discuss concrete countermeasures and future plans to establish our university's research integrity, and collectively implement these strategies through education programs. In this review, we introduce several examples of educational activities undertaken by our university, and use them as a basis for discussing how we should address research integrity and the responsible conduct of research in education for academics, graduate students, and undergraduates.
  • 鈴木 裕道
    2018 年 138 巻 4 号 p. 473-475
    発行日: 2018/04/01
    公開日: 2018/04/01
    ジャーナル フリー
     Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED) was launched in April 2015 to promote integrated medical research and development (R&D) ranging from basic research to practical applications, in order to smoothly achieve the nationwide application of research outcomes, and to establish an environment therefor. AMED consolidates budgets for R&D expenses, which had previously been allocated from different sources, such as the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, and the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. It provides funds strategically to universities, research institutions, etc. By promoting medical R&D, AMED aims to achieve the world's highest level of medical care/services to contribute to a society in which people live long and healthy lives. To achieve this mission, it is imperative that R&D funded by AMED is widely understood and supported. Maintaining and improving research integrity is a prerequisite to this end. AMED is taking various measures to ensure fair and appropriate R&D. It is asking researchers to participate in its responsible conduct in research (RCR) education program and to comply with its rules for managing conflicts of interest (COI). In addition, AMED also conducts a grant program to create and distribute a variety of educational materials on RCR and other matters. Further, AMED is establishing a platform that allows researchers to exchange information about research integrity, and it is undertaking additional measures, such as holding meetings and international symposia on research integrity.
  • 田中 智之
    2018 年 138 巻 4 号 p. 477-486
    発行日: 2018/04/01
    公開日: 2018/04/01
    ジャーナル フリー
     An increasing number of cases of research misconduct and whistle-blowing in the fields of medicine and life sciences has created public concern about research integrity. In Europe and the United States, there has been a large focus on poor reproducibility in life science research, and poor reproducibility is largely associated with research misconduct. Research integrity is equally crucial in the pharmaceutical sciences, which play an important role in medical and life sciences. Individual cases of research misconduct have not been investigated in detail in Japan, because it was generally believed that only researchers with strong or strange personalities would participate in misconduct. However, a better understanding of research misconduct will enable more in-depth discussions about research integrity, which is now known to be closely associated with normal research activities. Here I will introduce information on various contemporary activities being performed to create a sound research environment, drawn from practices in universities, pharmaceutical companies, and government agencies. I will also discuss ways in which individual researchers can promote research integrity.
  • 有馬 英俊, 金子 達雄
    2018 年 138 巻 4 号 p. 487-488
    発行日: 2018/04/01
    公開日: 2018/04/01
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 金子 達雄, 岡島 麻衣子
    2018 年 138 巻 4 号 p. 489-496
    発行日: 2018/04/01
    公開日: 2018/04/01
    ジャーナル フリー
     Cyanobacteria fix carbon dioxide and nitrogen from the atmosphere using solar energy to produce various biomolecules, and thus are regarded as ultimately ecological microreactors. Sacran is a cyanobacterial polysaccharide with a very high molecular weight of 29 Mg/mol, which is extracted from Aphanothece sacrum cyanobacterium mass-cultivated in freshwater environments such as river or spring. Sacran is a water-soluble heteropolysaccharide comprising more than 6 kinds of sugar residues and contains 12% sulfate anionic groups and 27% carboxyls. Sacran has a super-absorbent function of water, which can retain 6000 mL for 1 g specimen, due to very long hydrating chains. The value is much higher than hyaluronic acid or conventional super-absorbent polymers. Sacran exhibits self-orienting behavior in dilute solution at a concentration range over 0.25 wt%, which is quite low when compared with conventional liquid crystalline polysaccharides. Mesogenic helical chains of sacrans have extremely high aspect ratios of 1600 for highly persistent lengths of 32 micrometer. Through the liquid crystallinity, sacran solution shows a shear-thinning behavior and the solution spread over a substrate such as biological skin very efficiently to create a thin layer. Applied on atopic dermatitis skin sacran solution exerts excellent moisturizing effect and anti-itching action.
  • 三俣 哲
    2018 年 138 巻 4 号 p. 497-501
    発行日: 2018/04/01
    公開日: 2018/04/01
    ジャーナル フリー
     We investigated the electric and viscoelastic properties for the aqueous solution of cyanobacterial megamolecules, named sacran. Sacran is an anionic polyelectrolyte that has carboxylate and sulfate groups on the saccharide chain. The electric conductivity and shear viscosity demonstrated three crossover concentrations; overlap concentration at 0.004 wt%, entanglement concentration at 0.02 wt%, and gelation concentration at 0.1 wt%. The decrease in the charge density of the sacran chains reduces the repulsive force between the chains and this would cause transformation from the dilute to condensed states. At extremely low flow rates, sacran demonstrated a behavior called negative thixotropy in which the shear viscosity increased over time. In this review, the conformation of sacran chain in pure water is discussed and its negative thixotropy is briefly described.
  • 桶葭 興資, 岡島 麻衣子, 金子 達雄
    2018 年 138 巻 4 号 p. 503-507
    発行日: 2018/04/01
    公開日: 2018/04/01
    ジャーナル フリー
     The geometric structures of soft materials can be controlled on the macro-scale using interfacial or mechanical instability, e.g., fingering patterns of viscous liquid and buckling patterns of gels during swelling/deswelling. These patterns can be used as smart materials for capturing/releasing and mass-transportation applications. Here we introduce the emergence of a uniaxially oriented membrane by drying an aqueous liquid-crystalline solution, composed of megamolecular supra-polysaccharides “sacran”, from a limited space. By controlling the geometries of the evaporation front, multiple nuclei emerge that grow into upright membranes with uniaxial orientation. Notably, the uniaxially orientated membrane composed of rod-like microdomains is rationally formed along the dynamic three-phase contact line. Besides, the membrane macroscopically partitions the three-dimensional cuboid cell for evaporating the aqueous solution. We envision that such a uniaxially oriented membrane can be used as soft biomaterials such as dialysis membranes with directional controllability in medical and pharmaceutical fields.
  • 有馬 英俊, 本山 敬一, 東 大志, 福島 聡, 尹 浩信
    2018 年 138 巻 4 号 p. 509-515
    発行日: 2018年
    公開日: 2018/04/01
    ジャーナル フリー
     Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic skin disease characterized by inflammation, pruritus, and eczematous lesions. Recently, sacran, a new polysaccharide isolated from cyanobacterium Aphanothece sacrum (Sur.) OKADA discovered by Suringar in the 19th century, has received considerable attention as a novel biomaterial. Previously, it was reported that sacran exhibits potent anti-inflammatory effects for skin diseases produced by various stimulants with optimum effective concentrations at 0.01% (w/v) and 0.05% (w/v) in rats and mice. Importantly, we demonstrated clinically that almost all of the average scores for AD symptoms in patient treated with sacran solutions were improved. In AD model mice, sacran treatment markedly down-regulated inflammatory cytokine and chemokine mRNA levels compared with non-treated controls. Furthermore, sacran solution significantly suppressed inflammation response in RAW264.7 cells. In RBL-2H3 cells, the sacran solution significantly lowered degranulation. Taken together, our studies suggest sacran may have the potential to improve AD through functional recovery of skin barrier and anti-inflammatory effects.
  • 本山 敬一, 東 大志, 岡島 麻衣子, 金子 達雄, 有馬 英俊
    2018 年 138 巻 4 号 p. 517-520
    発行日: 2018/04/01
    公開日: 2018/04/01
    ジャーナル フリー
     A wound dressing is one of the essential approaches to prevent further harm to cutaneous wounds as well as to promote wound healing. Therefore, to achieve ideal wound healing, the development of advanced dressing materials is necessary. Sacran, a novel megamolecular polysaccharide derived from the cyanobacterium Aphanothece sacrum, has a very high molecular weight that exceeds 107 g/mol and water-superabsorbent capacity. Recently, we demonstrated that sacran exerts anti-inflammatory activity by ameliorating the skin barrier function in patients with atopic dermatitis. In this study, to develop and characterize sacran hydrogel films (Sac-HGFs) for wound dressing materials, we prepared a physically crosslinked-Sac-HGFs, and evaluated their physicochemical properties, cytotoxicity, skin hydration and wound healing ability. Additionally, we encapsulated curcumin, as a model drug for wound healing, into Sac-HGFs by complexation with 2-hydroxypropyl-γ-cyclodextrin (HP-γ-CyD), and investigated their potential for wound dressing application. Sac-HGF has potentially good properties for wound dressing application, due to not only the moisturizing effect but also the anti-inflammatory effect of sacran. Additionally, Sac-HGF has the potential to deliver water soluble complex of curcumin/HP-γ-CyD at the wound site and thereby promote wound healing. These findings may be useful information for preparation of wound dressing materials using sacran, CyDs and drugs.
  • 川村 和美, 大澤 匡弘
    2018 年 138 巻 4 号 p. 521
    発行日: 2018/04/01
    公開日: 2018/04/01
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 塩川 満, 川村 和美
    2018 年 138 巻 4 号 p. 523-524
    発行日: 2018/04/01
    公開日: 2018/04/01
    ジャーナル フリー
     The 10th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society for Pharmaceutical Palliative Care and Sciences was held at Act City Hamamatsu, Japan, with a total of 2634 participants in attendance. The theme of the meeting was realized through a number of new concepts, such as a debate symposium, information sessions, nurses' workshops, and so on. The results obtained from the participation questionnaire (n=438), which were aggregated up to 1 month following the end of this year's meeting, revealed that 89% of the participants at considered it to have been appealing. In particular, 63% of the participants favored the adoption of a debate symposium whereby it was possible to ask and respond to questions in real time. In the free comments section of the questionnaire, the participants expressed how they felt the debate symposium made it easy to give their opinions, and that this element might be further developed in the future. They also stated that they found the introduction of the Clica system effective in terms of making the annual meeting an active learning place. One issue that was highlighted concerned the observation that the hall used to host the symposium was designed as a concert venue, which meant it was highly shielded from the outside environment, in addition to access to the internet being blocked. I hope that many of the projects from this Annual Meeting will serve to guide the future style of the Society's Annual Meetings.
  • 荒井 研祐, 三堀 将寛
    2018 年 138 巻 4 号 p. 525-527
    発行日: 2018/04/01
    公開日: 2018/04/01
    ジャーナル フリー
     Within school classrooms, Active Learning has been receiving unprecedented attention. Indeed, Active Learning's popularity does not stop in the classroom. As more and more people argue that the Japanese government needs to renew guidelines for education, Active Learning has surfaced as a method capable of providing the necessary knowledge and training for people in all areas of society, helping them reach their full potential. It has become accepted that Active Learning is more effective over the passive listening of lectures, where there is little to no interaction. Active Learning emphasizes that learners explain their thoughts, ask questions, and express their opinions, resulting in a better retention rate of the subject at hand. In this review, I introduce an Active Learning support tool developed at Digital Knowledge, “Clica”. This tool is currently being used at many educational institutions. I will also introduce an online questionnaire that Digital Knowledge provided at the 10th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society for Pharmaceutical Palliative Care and Sciences.
  • 川村 和美
    2018 年 138 巻 4 号 p. 529-532
    発行日: 2018/04/01
    公開日: 2018/04/01
    ジャーナル フリー
     At the 10th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society for Pharmaceutical Palliative Care and Sciences our theme centered on active learning systems where adult learners engage on their own initiative. Many of the participants were pharmacists active in clinical practices. Regardless of their specialized skill-sets, pharmacists are constantly faced with difficult challenges in their daily work. Passive, one-way lectures are one resource for them, but unfortunately such lectures provide limited insights for resolving concrete problems. The present meeting aimed to show participants how to obtain information they need to solve specific real-world problems. This paper summarizes how we planned this year's meeting, including details about the debate symposium, social lunch, and online questionnaires. All these elements had the end goal of enabling learners proactivity to become their own best resource for learning. It is sincerely hoped that the design and execution of this meeting will prove resourceful for future annual meetings.
  • 鈴木 克明
    2018 年 138 巻 4 号 p. 533-536
    発行日: 2018/04/01
    公開日: 2018/04/01
    ジャーナル フリー
     This paper examines the reform experience of the 10th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society for Pharmaceutical Palliative Care and Sciences from Instructional Systems perspectives, to check whether it was effective, efficient, and appealing for participants. “Instructional Systems” has been a research area in educational technology for the past 50 years, and has also been applied to training and human resource development in healthcare domains. If an annual meeting is to be designed for participants' learning, then perspectives of Instructional Systems can be applied to interpret the effort of the reform. First, fill in the gaps of participants' knowledge, using before-and-after comparison. Design a conference to meet the needs of its participants by checking why they attend (expectations) and what they bring in (starting status). Second, design the conference as a process of innovation. The bigger the expected changes, the more carefully participants should be prepared to accommodate them. Third, follow plan-do-check-action cycles with data for confirming and revising the new ways of running the meeting. Plan to check “exportability” of the new ways, to assess whether it can be generalized to future meetings.
総説
  • Foo Wah Foong
    2018 年 138 巻 4 号 p. 537-549
    発行日: 2018/04/01
    公開日: 2018/04/01
    ジャーナル フリー
     Literary English is different from science English (SE) and pharmaceutical science English (PSE). Therefore, a totally new approach was adopted for students to learn PSE at Kyoto Pharmaceutical University (KPU). In 2012, a 4-year program for teaching PSE was proposed, and a stepwise-stepup tertiary science English education (SSTSEE) system was introduced at KPU. The system provides a novel form of PSE teaching that stretches from year 1 to 4, where the PSE level progresses to higher levels of learning with each passing academic year. With the launch of the SSTSEE system, relevant science-educated staff were provided with training and were also requested to study the syllabi of the respective academic years to write textbooks with the appropriate PSE content for their respective levels. From 2012 to 2015, textbooks and curricula for 4 year academic levels were developed and published to meet the needs for PSE learning at each academic level. Based on results of the SSTSEE system, year 1 students acquired the SE basics, and year 2 students applied the SE basics acquired. In years 3 and 4, students further pursued and developed their PSE ability. Additionally, students participated actively in developing skills in the reading, listening, writing, and speaking of SE/PSE. Active-plus-deep learning prompted students in developing those skills using illustrations, posters, and power-point slideshow presentations. By year 4, average achievers had established an independent level of competency in reading, listening, speaking, and writing PSE. Moreover, the SSTSEE system accommodated students timely in developing communication skills for practical fieldwork (clerkships) at pharmacies/hospitals in year 5 and for their future endeavors.
一般論文
  • 田原 麻衣子, 杉本 直樹, 香川(田中) 聡子, 酒井 信夫, 五十嵐 良明, 神野 透人
    2018 年 138 巻 4 号 p. 551-557
    発行日: 2018/04/01
    公開日: 2018/04/01
    ジャーナル フリー
     Currently, indoor air quality guidelines for formaldehyde and acetaldehyde are set by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan. Aldehydes are widely used in adhesives and preservatives, and exposure to these compounds via indoor air is a matter of concern. Considering that contact with indoor air is part of daily life, evaluation of indoor air quality is extremely important. 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) derivatization is widely used for quantitative analysis of aldehydes. A certified reference material with traceability to the International System of Units (SI) is required for this method. However, currently, there are no certified reference materials available for aldehyde-DNPH derivatives, which means that the quantified values obtained by this method are not sufficiently reliable. In this study, we determined the actual content and purity of commercially available aldehyde-DNPH derivatives using 1H-quantitative NMR (qNMR), which can be measured with SI-traceability. Although the commercial DNPH derivatives of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were low concentration solutions, we were able to determine their purities using 1H-qNMR. Furthermore, we were able to separate and quantify the acetaldehyde isomers generated by the derivatization reaction. In conclusion, it is possible to obtain highly accurate results using 1H-qNMR with commercially available reagents that are not certified metrologically.
    Editor’s picks

    The exposure to aldehydes via indoor air is a matter of concern. Since there are no certified reference materials for aldehyde derivatives, the quantified values are not sufficiently reliable. In this study, the authors showed the actual content and purity of commercially available aldehyde derivatives using 1H-qNMR. Because it is greatly important for the quality control of reagents to secure the accuracy of analytical data, the qNMR analysis works as a bridge of International System of Units traceability.

ノート
  • 大山 勝宏, 杉浦 宗敏
    2018 年 138 巻 4 号 p. 559-564
    発行日: 2018/04/01
    公開日: 2018/04/01
    ジャーナル フリー
     Prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) analog formulations are the most commonly used drugs for glaucoma treatment. They are known to be superior to β-blockers for reducing intraocular pressure and can be effective all through the day. Because of the action, topical β-blockers are contraindicated for patients with bronchial asthma. PGF2α is also known to act as a constrictor of the respiratory tract. The present study aims to analyze the relationship between PGF2α analogs and asthma. In addition, we utilized β-blockers and combined formulations of both contents to evaluate for comparison with PGF2α analogs. Data from Japanese adverse drug event reports (JADERs) from April 2004 to January 2016 were used for analysis. The drugs of interest were 4 PGF2α analogs, 4 β-blockers, and 2 combined formulations of both. For quantitative signal detection, the reporting odds ratios (RORs) with Haldane-Anscombe 1/2 correction were calculated. The corrected RORs (95%CI) were detected to be 4.73 (2.30-9.75) for PGF2α analogs, 4.61 (1.82-11.7) for β-blockers, and 28.7 (12.1-68.1) for combined formulations. Our results suggest that not only topical β-blockers but also PGF2α analogs are associated with asthma, and the combined formulations have stronger associations with asthma than when administered alone. Therefore, further clinical research will be necessary, and careful attention should be paid to any glaucoma patient using PGF2α analogs for asthma symptoms.
  • 田澤 佑基, 鏡 圭介, 渡辺 祐子, 久保田 康生, 原田 幸子, 小林 正紀, 山田 武宏, 井関 健
    2018 年 138 巻 4 号 p. 565-570
    発行日: 2018/04/01
    公開日: 2018/04/01
    ジャーナル フリー
     Indomethacin (IM) oral spray is a hospital preparation that is used to reduce pain from oral mucositis induced by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. IM oral spray consists of IM (0.25%) dissolved in KH2PO4-NaOH buffer (Formulation A) or Formulation A containing xylitol (Xyl) and glycerin (Gly) (Formulation B). To clarify the stability of IM oral spray in two different formulation conditions, we evaluated the residual rates of IM in these formulations to determine the optimal storage temperature and shelf-life. IM oral spray was stored at freezer temperature (−20°C), refrigerator temperature (4°C) and room temperature (25°C) for up to 16 weeks after preparation. The residual rate of IM was determined by using HPLC. The residual rates of IM in Formulation A and Formulation B after storage for 16 weeks at freezer temperature were ≥95%. When stored at refrigerator temperature, the residual rate of IM in Formulation A was 96.1% after 12 weeks, and the residual rates of IM in Formulation B were 95.8% after 2 weeks, 90.1% after 4 weeks and 72.7% after 12 weeks. These results suggested that Formulation A is stable for at least 12 weeks when stored at 4°C. However, degradation of IM seemed to be accelerated in the formulation containing Xyl and Gly, suggesting that the expiration date should be shortened to 2 weeks at 4°C. In addition, both formulations were stable for at least 16 weeks in a freezer, indicating that long-term preservation is possible.
  • 西原 正和, 抜井 啓二, 大住 優子, 塩田 裕徳
    2018 年 138 巻 4 号 p. 571-579
    発行日: 2018/04/01
    公開日: 2018/04/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/01/30
    ジャーナル フリー
     Saposhnikoviae Radix (“Boufu”) is an important crude drug used in Kampo formulation. It is extracted from wild-type plants. However, recently, extraction has become difficult because of a decrease in wild-type plants. Therefore, cultivated plants account for the majority of the market, from which the crude drug is extracted. However, the cultivation techniques used are not sufficient to obtain the desirable extracts. In this study, we compared the contents of the extract and the quantitative values of characteristic constituents obtained from wild-type and cultivated plants, and found a remarkable difference. Therefore, it is considered that these indicators play an important role in the establishment of better cultivation technology.
  • 宗 村盛, 尾田 一貴, 太田 景子, 坂本 直治, 鈴木 豊史
    2018 年 138 巻 4 号 p. 581-588
    発行日: 2018/04/01
    公開日: 2018/04/01
    ジャーナル フリー
     Tazobactam/piperacillin (TAZ/PIPC) is an antimicrobial drug agent with a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity and is recommended as first-line therapy for hospital-acquired pneumonia, nursing- and healthcare-associated pneumonia, and other severe pneumonias. Nevertheless, in clinical settings, TAZ/PIPC is not fully effective in the treatment of pneumonia in the elderly. In the present study, we retrospectively investigated the efficacy of TAZ/PIPC for pneumonia in elderly patients and identified factors that reduced its efficacy. Ninety-nine patients (mean age of 83.4 years and no significant difference in the sex ratio) were included in the present study. The efficacy rate of TAZ/PIPC for pneumonia in elderly patients was 81.8%, which was approximately 7 to 10% lower than that in domestic phase III trials. A multivariate analysis identified the complications of chronic respiratory disease as a significant factor attenuating the therapeutic effects of TAZ/PIPC [odds ratio 4.050, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.008-16.271]. In conclusion, TAZ/PIPC may not be sufficiently effective for pneumonia in elderly patients with the complications of chronic respiratory disease as a background.
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