Contents ; 1. The Structure and Reactivity. The stability of DAMN (diaminomaleonitrile) and its derivatives was discussed from the conjugation between the nitrogene lone pairs and the π-electron systems. The reactivity of these compounds was explained in terms of the product stability. 2. The Synthesis of Derivatives. 2.1. Open-chain compounds. 2.2. Imidazole derivatives. 2.3. Pyrazine derivatives. 2.4. Diazepine derivatives. 2.5. Purine derivatives. 2.6. Other heterocycles.
Many synthetic reactions with palladium compounds reported after the invention of the Wacker Process are classified into two main groups ; 1. Oxidation reactions with Pd2+ and 2. Catalytic reactions. In this review, the oxidation reactions of olefins, aromatic compounds and other compounds are classified further and they are reviewed with typical examples. Application of the oxidation reactions to organic syntheses are stressed.
Recently, the functionalization of polymers and the use of functional polymers in a field of synthetic chemistry are extensively developed. This article describes varieties and functions of such polymers as reactive polymeric reagents, catalysts and reaction media, and discusses the features and unsolved problems from the technical and mechanistic view points. The utilities of functional polymers as the subsidiary tool for organic syntheses are also mentioned.
Photosensitized oxygenation of tryptophan and related compounds has been reviewed. The topic is devided into 4 sections, with opening Chapter of the introduction to this review. The second Chapter describes photosensitized oxygenation of tryptophan in both an aqueous solution and non-aqueous solution, followed by the Chapter 3 which describes photosensitized oxygenation of simple indoles in various conditions. The last Chapter is the introduction of the recent work on photosensitized oxygenation of tryptophan and related compounds, which emphasizes on the mechanism of oxidative transformation of tryptophan into kynurenine.
The reduction of aromatic nitro compounds with hydrogen sulfide was investigated. Polar aprotic solvents were more effective as a solvent. The reduction was promoted by the addition of the strong basic amine. The p-substituted nitrobenzenes carrying electron-withdrawing groups accelerated the reaction, where azoxy and azo compounds were obtained as the by-products.
The lack of L-lysine, an essential amino acid, in cereals provoked many studies on L-lysine production by both chemical synthesis and microbial method. However, the production of L-lysine in a large scale had to wait until 1958, whn the fermentation process using a auxotrophic mutant of Corynebacteriurn glutamicum was establisheed by Kyowa Hakko Kogyo Co.. Recently another fermentation process using a regulatory mutant of Brevibacterium flavurn was developed by Ajinomoto Co.. Now the both processes have been further improved and are being used for the industrial production, which reached to 10, 00020, 000 tons per year. The amount apt to change depending on the change of the production of soybean meal and fish meal. Very recently, third industrial process was developed by Torey Co.. In the process, racemic α-amino caprolactum synthesized from cyclohexene is converted intoL-lysine by the combined action of L-aminocaprolactum hydrolase and aminocaprolactum racemase.