In recent years photoelectron spectroscopy has evolved into a powerful technique in organic chemistry. After a brief introduction of photoelectron spectroscopy (PES), this article deals with other types of electron spectroscopy such as EIS, AES, PIS and INS, and then gives representative examples of the application of electron spectroscopy to organic chemistry. In particular, the electronic states and structures of organic molecules, the chemical reaction processes and also solid surface properties that can be proved by electron spectroscopy are discussed in the light of recent progress.
This review deals with remarkably improved regioselective reactions of oriented organic molecules with reduced mobility. The following templates can be used to bring organic molecules with completely three-dimentional mobility, to reduce the mobility and orient : (1) alumina and silicagel, (2) micelles, and mono- and bi-layers, (3) clathrates, and (4) cyclodextrins.
Formycin, showdomycin, pyrazomycin, oxazinomycin are known as C-nucleoside antibiotics. In this review, synthetic methods of C-nucleosides are cited. Especially, synthetic studies on C-nucleoside analogs are summarized. Aldoses are reacted with carbonyl reagents or diamines and further cyclization affords C-nucleoside analogs. Ethynyl derivatives of sugar are cyclized with cycloaddition reaction to obtain heterocycles. On one hand, Schiff bases or diazo- compounds of sugar also cyclized with acetylenic compounds. Ketoisothiocyanate of sugar derivative is reacted with nucleophilic reagents to give C-nucleoside analogs. Sugar lactones react with lithiated compounds to afford 1'-hydroxy C-nucleo-side analogs under stereoselective control.
Preparative methods, properties, and reactions of organofluorosilicates, M2 [RSiF5], have been reviewed. Since organopentafluorosilicates contain a doubly-negatively charged hexacoordinate silicon atom, their reactivities are quite different from those of neutral tetracoordinate organosilanes. The carbon-silicon bond in organopentafluorosilicates is readily cleaved by electrophiles or oxidizing agents such as halogens, NBS, CuX2, MCPBA, and TCNE, and various functional groups are selectively introduced to the carbon atom which has been attached to the silicon atom. The organic group in the silicate can also be transferred to other metals such as Cu (I), Ag (I), Pd (II), Hg (I), Hg (II), Tl (III), and Bi (III). The transmetalation provides various types of carbon-carbon bond forming reactions.
This review deals with the recent progress toward the total synthesis of eremophilane-type sesquiterpenoids. Bicyclic eremophilanes, tricyclic eremophilanes (furanoeremophilanes), other eremophilanes, and biogenetically patterned transformation of eudesman to eremophilane sesquiterpenes are described. The items have been collected from the papers published through early 1975 to late 1979.
Patents and publications concerning the application of Fluid Bed Reactor are reviewed according to the following organic synthesis. 1) Vinyl acetate production 2) Phthalic anhydride production 3) Vinyl chloride production (Oxychlorination) 4) Maleic anhydride production 5) Acrylonitrile production