Recent developments related to the total syntheses of spermidine and spermine alkaloids are reviewed. Those alkaloids are kukoamine A 11, maytennine 30, celacinnine 31, celallocinnine 32, celafurine 33, celabenzine 34, dihydroperiphylline 35, (±) -dihydropalustrine 73, 75, lunarine 76, lunaridine 77, codonocarpine 79, and (-) -homaline 93. This article is constructed by following chapters : (i) acyclic spermidine and spermine alkaloids, (ii) macrocyclic spermidine alkaloids, (iii) macrocyclic spermine alkaloids, (iv) observations on biosyntheses, and (v) new synthetic methods of macrocyclic aminolactams.
Recent advances in the synthesis of the propellanes are reviewed. This article is divided into two parts, Part 1 concerns the available synthetic methods for a variety of propellanes in which the methods are classfied by the type of reactions ; 1) cycloaddition, 2) condensation, 3) reductive dehalogenation and 4) skeletal rearrangement. Part 2 deals with the synthesis of the target propellanes which involve small ring propellane, 1, 4-bridged Dewar benzene, buttaflane, trispiro- [3, 3, 3] -propellane and modhephene.
Azulenes are of interest in their chemical and physical properties as one of the fundamental nonbenzenoid aromatic compounds. The present article provides a summary of a new synthetic method of azulene derivatives by the reaction of 2H-cyclohepta [b] furan-2-ones with enamines developed mainly in the author's laboratory. This method could be applied to the syntheses of azulene derivatives having alkyl, aryl, and functional substituents, and of polycyclic aromatic compounds containing azulene ring.
The present article involves the studies on aroma constituents of turkish tobacco and the sex pheromone of cigarette beetle, of which the former is considered to be the biologically active substances to human and the both are to the insect. A comprehensive investigation of aroma constituents of Turkish tobacco showed the existence of terpenoid acids related to tobacco thunberganoids. The degradation of thunberganoids to these terpenoid acids are considered to be closely related to the formation of the tobacco characteristic aroma. In the course of our another studies on the biologically active substances to cigarette beetle, a serious pest of cured tobacco leaves, a sex pheromone, 4, 6-dimethyl-7-hydroxynonan-3-one (serricornin) and other 4, 6-dimethylnonane derivatives as minor components were isolated. The presence of these 4, 6-dimethylnonane derivatives suggests that these pheromone components are derived from the polyketide biosynthesis. These biologically active substances were synthesized in practical scale and now the applications of these chemicals as tobacco flavors and the attractants of cigarette beetle are in progress.
Dye laser is a very useful device for some chemical applications such as spectroscopy, laserinduced chemical reaction, and picosecond flash-photolysis, because it generates a coherent radiation with a very wide tunable range from 311 nm to 1285 nm. More than 500 kinds of fluorescent organic chemicals show laser action under intense excitation by a flashlamp or other lasers. In this review, a fundamental principle and characteristics of dye lasers are described. Then, useful and efficient chemicals used for dye lasers are reviewed. Most important classes of dye laser materials are polymethine dyes, xanthene dyes, oxazine dyes, coumarin derivatives, stilbene derivatives and p-origophenylenes.
Oxyselenation reactions, which involve an electrophilic attack of organoselenium group on olefin and acetylene followed by a nucleophilic attack of oxygen atom of alcohol, carboxylic acid, water etc, are reviewed, especially focusing on the recent application to organic synthesis. The term of solvoselenation is introduced for the first time as a more general name for the oxyselenation type reaction in various solvents such as ROH, RCO2 H, RCN etc.