This is a transcript of a lecture which the author had the privilege to present in November 1978 at several universities in Japan on invitation of the Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science. The lecture was conceived as a progress report on recent work at the Institut für Strahlenchemie and on the preliminaries thereof. The reader is adviced to consult the articles by Dauben et al., Houk, and Schuster for comprehensive literature reviews on β, γ-unsaturated ketone photochemistry, and by Schaffner for a more detailed presentation of the earlier work on 2-cyclopentenyl ketones.
During our investigation to search useful derivatives of dimethyl sulfoxide, we encountered a new sulfoxide, methyl methylthiomethyl sulfoxide which was also named formaldehyde dimethyl dithioacetal S-oxide. Now, this compound is designated conveniently as “FAMSO” by abbreviating he latter name. FAMSO was first synthesized by substitution of chloromethyl methl sulfoxide with a methanethiolate anion and it was later found that this compound could be more easily produced by oxidation of formaldehyde dimethyl dithioacetal with hydrogen peroxide. To date, many papers on organic syntheses using FAMSO have been published and it has appeared to be a versatile reagent for making a variety of organic compounds such as aldehydes, cyclic or acyclic ketones, α-hydroxy aldehydes, α-amino acids, α-keto acids, and α-arylalkanoic acids. This review will disclose the details of the production of FAMSO and its utilization for organic syntheses.
This review involves a survey of the synthetically useful electrooxidation of side-chains of alkylbenzenes. Emphasis has been made on the preparative results of electrochemical functionalizations as well as coupling reactions of the side-chains of the aromatics. Introduction 1. Electrolytic Acetoxylation of Alkylbenzenes 2. Electrolytic Methoxylation of Alkylbenzenes 3. Electrolytic Acetamidation of Alkylbenzenes 4. Electrochemical Oxidation of Alkylbenzenes in Aqueous Media 5. Electrochemical Oxidation of Benzyl Alcohols and Benzyl Ethers 6. Indirect Electrolytic Oxidation of Alkylbenzenes 7. Electrochemical Oxidation of Alkylbenzenes (Styrenes and their Homologues)
A general NMR method is briefly described for the analysis of the conformational and configurational aspects of monosaccharides. It is also demonstrated that 13C NMR provides an excellent tool for the determination of composition, sequence, conformation, and dynamics of polysaccharides, including those in the gel state. In addition, application of the method to elucidation of the dynamic structures of carbohydrates on the surfaces of intact cells is described. Contents. 1. Introduction 2. Determination of conformational and anomeric aspects of monosaccharides 3. Tautomerism 4. 13C NMR of oligosaccharides and polysaccharides 5. Polysaccharide gels 6. Carbohydrates on the surfaces of intact cells.
Application of nucleic acid chemistry to drugs is discussed. The article contained 1) a survey of nucleobase and nucleoside analogs, which are used to anticancer and antiviral diseases ; 2) Application of oligo- and polynucleotides to medical purpose ; and 3) Use of gene recombinant technique for producing hormones etc.