Organoaluminium compounds have attracted considerable attention as novel reagents in organic syntheses, particularly in aspects of highly selective reactions. Recent studies on synthetic reactions utilizing organoaluminium compounds are briefly reviewed in this paper, which mainly deals with carbon-carbon bond forming reactions in the following topics :  Carbon-carbon bond formation; (a) methylation, (b) preparation and reactions of alkenylaluminium compounds-hydroalumination, carboalumination, and conjugate addition, (c) conjugate addition of alkynylaluminium compounds, (d) diastereoselective reactions utilizing allylaluminium reagents, (e) methylenation of carbonyl groups, (f) generation and reactions of aluminium enolates, (g) hydrocyanation.  Unique roles as Lewis acid : (a) ene reaction, (b) Diels-Alder reaction, and (c) Claisen rearrangement,  Beckmann rearrangement with simultaneous alkylation.
The chemistry of organotellurium compounds is reviewed, especially focusing on their application to organic synthesis. This review deals with the preparative method of organotellurium compounds, carbon-carbon bond formation, telluroxide elimination leading to olefins, allylic alcohols, and allylic ethers, oxidation using diaryl telluroxide, reduction using aryltellurium compound, and the synthesis of organic halides and alkyl ethers.
Organometallic derivatives of Zr and Ti which are increasingly important as reagents or catalysts for regio- or stereoselective organic synthesis are briefly reviewed. The unique reactivities of Zr-C or Ti-C bonds are widely utilized to construct various organic structures through insertion, addition and/or cleavage.
Organometallic complexes of nickel, palladium and platinum play important roles in organic synthesis. An overview of preparative methods of the organonickel, -palladium and -platinum complexes are presented. The thermolysis mechanisms of these complexes and reactions with carbon monoxide are described in detail.
Recent studies on the one-step oxidation of benzene to phenol have been reviewed laying particularly the stress on the liquid-phase reactions. Liquid-phase oxidation can be performed using hydrogen peroxide, molecular oxygen, pyridine-N-oxide as well as irradiated water as oxidants. The variation in phenol yield due to the difference in reaction mode has been critically discussed. Vapor-phase oxidation has also been described briefly.
This review deals with the mechanisms and stereochemistry of the enzymatic oxygenations of foreign organic sulfides promoted by two hepatic microsomal monooxygenases, i. e., cytochrome P-450 isolated from phenobarbital pretreated rabbit liver and pig liver microsomal FAD-containing monooxygenase (E. C. 1. 14. 13. 8). Oxygenation of sulfides with cytochrome P-450 procceds via a single electron transfer process from the substrate to the enzyme active site eventually affording both S-oxidation and S-dealkylation products, while FAD-containing monooxygenase catalyzes only the S-oxydation through electrophilic oxidation of divalent sulfur of the substrate by the peroxidic oxygen of the flavin-hydroperoxide intermediate. Stereochemistry of the sulfoxide formation is not highly controlled in the oxygenation of sulfides with cytochrome P-450, however, quite specific in the oxygenation of sulfides with FAD-monooxygenase.
Our recent developments related to the cytochrome P-450 model reactions by using iron porphyrin complex are summarized. This article is divided into three sections according to the type of reaction. The first is the oxidant supported oxidation. Porphinatoiron-oxene complex generated by chloro α, β, γ, δ-tetraphenylporphinato iron (III) (FeIII TPPCl) and 2-iodoso-m-xylene as oxidant smoothly dealkylated several tertiary amines to the corresponding secondary amines. The second is the oxidation accompanied by the reductive activation of molecular oxygen. Reductive dioxygen activation was achieved by reductant (Na2S2O4, NaBH4 or Zn) -FeIII TPPCl system in protic media and the active intermediate formed by this system oxidized tertiary amines, sulfides and hydrocarbons. The last is the reductive deoxygenation from several tertiary amine oxides and arene oxides by reduced porphinatoiron (FeII TPP). Detailed studies on the reaction mechanism are also described.
Usual formose reaction catalyzed by calcium hydroxide is well known to give a complex mixture of many products. However, the formose reaction carried out by the continuous addition of paraformaldehyde was found to give three branched sugar alcohols selectively as described in the title.