About 220, random-sampled, offenders discharged from the Nagoya prison between 1948 and 1949 were followed up until March, 1952 as to their conduct; and tried to evaluate the relative importance of 19 biological and sociological factors. Out of these offenders 78 violated again after from 26 to 42 months. It was found with these 78 violators and 192 nonviolators by statistcal test that the following 9 factors were significant on the judgment of social prognosis for offenders: 1) Hereditary disease of kin 2) Family trouble 3) Misconduct before 18 age 4) Serious illness and wound 5) No protector (Above, less than 1% of the level of significance) - 6) Incomplete compulsory education of parent 7) Prison punishment 8) Psychopathy 9) No occupational aptitude (Above, less than 5% of the level of significance) (Seto Reformatory and Gifu Mental Institution)
1) An anthropometric examination was conducted of 534 so-called Niseis who were born in the United States to parents of pore Japanese stock. As compared with the native Japanese adult, the total length of body of a Nisei is 5 to 9.3 cm. greater and the weight 49 to 12 kg. heavier. As shown in Figure No. 1, the growth curve of the Nisei from 6 to 15 years of age remarkably runs accordant with that of the white American, but after -that age the yearly growth in the case of the latter amounts to 12.8 cm. till he becomes an adult, whereas in the case of Nisei and Japanese it amounts to only 5.5 cm. Also the developing curves of body weight show an almost identical curve. The second generation Japanese in other countries, such as the Philippines, Sumatra, Korea and Manchuria, do not show such good records of growth, but fall below those of the native Japanese, by 1 to 4 cm. in stature and 5 to Mg. in body weight. (Table 4. 5. Fig. 1. 3.) 2) It is quite remarkable that the curve of indices for annual growth of the Nisei between the ages of 10 and 13 runs far above that of the native Japanese, especially in the case of Nisei girls. The white Americans form a peak in the curve at the age of 12 years, in sharp contrast to a deep dent made by the native Japanese at that age. (cf. Figure No. 4) 3) The most notable difference between the Nisei and the. native Japanese is found in the thickness of skin and the circumference of upper arm. The former of the Nisei is. larger by 123 per cent, and the latter by 17 per cent, than those of the native Japanese. Such difference has been caused by the better nutrition and better training of muscles. in the case of the Nisei than in the case of the native Japanese. (Table 3.) 4) Leg length and trunk length. On the averge, the leg length of a Nisei is 2.8 to-8.3 cm. greater and its ratio to his stature about 1.00 per cent larger than the corre sponding figures for a Japanese, and, on the other hand, the sitting height of Nisei is shor ter by about 1.2 per cent. Therefore, for the purpose of our researches, we have sampled: out such Nisei and native Japanese as have approximately the same total length of body, and examined their leg length and their sitting height. It has been ascertained that the averge leg length of a Nisei is greater by about 0.9 cm. and his sitting height smaller by about 1.1 cm. than the comparable figures for a native Japanese. It is concluded that leg length of the native Japanese has been shortened, and that their sitting height made taller, as the result of restraint on growth due to the sedentary habit in their daily life. As we often find in living organisms, a restraint on the one part as a rule causes a development on the other. (Table 9. 10. 11. 19. 20. Fig. 2.) 5) Cephalic index. The biparietal diameter of head of the Nisei is larger by about 7 mm. than the Japanese native's, with no variation in the occipitofrontal dismeter. Therefore, the cephalic index works out at 85 for Niseis, as against 81 for Japanese natives on the average. Shapiro already obtained the cephalic index for Niseis in Hetwaii, which amounted to 83.8. He also measured native Japanese and obtained figure of 80.1 for them. Eguchi and Tsukada examind the second-generation Japanese in South Sea areas and arrived at a figure of 84. It is interesting to note that these inquiries of the emigration people have produced approximately similar results. (Table 3. 24. Fig. 6.) 6) To a greater or lesser degree, the breadth of nose, cheak bone, shoulder, as well as intercristal breath of the Nisei is smaller than that of the native Japanese, though with respect to the lengths the former excels the latter. The indices of both nose and. face are smaller for the Nisei.