It is revealed by fundamental researches of the author, which have been reported in “Race Hygiene” (Vol. 24, No. 1, No. 2, & No. 4), that Toshima Island, Izu, Tokyo is the poorest farm-village being scanty of its area, population, natural resources, and culturallevel comparing with other island of Izu, and has peculiarcharacters in many points. As it was considered, to make these characters clear, that the author had to examine the marriage situation which seemed to be closely connected with this problems, further Tresearches about marriage were made in ganuary, 1957. The result were as follows: 1. A survey of family-line; According to the investigation on the 54 families, all of which had been continuing from the 5 th year of Meiji to 32 nd year of Showa (1872-. 1957), All the families were relatives to each other, whether close or not, by marriage in antecedent generations
2. A survey of marriage; Among 243 examples, 190 cases marriaged once, 10cases twice, and among the rest, only one side marriaged for the second time. The average age of the fist marriage was 24.0 in male, and 19.7 in female. The difference of age between husband and wife was, in average, 4.1. It was recognized that the age of fist marriage in male became older in Showa days. Among 84 married people in this village at present, 18.4 % married twice. besides, majority of remarriage occured because of the separation by death.
3. The range of mating; In this researche of the range of mating, among 84 married people in this village, the marriage among the same villagers was 83.8% recently, however, the range of mating becomes, more or less, wider.
4. A survey of birth and birth-control; The average numberof birth of a woman was 3.5, which is not so high. The number of birth tended to decrease in younger generation. According to the survey on birth-control, among 48 ansewers of whom used to practice birth-control, the economical reason proved 27.1 %. Besides, it was remarkable that artificial abortion was popular
5. Consanguineous marriage; The frequency of consanguineous marriage was 11.9 per cent, among which the marriage between consins were the most. The 1.62 per cent of the whole population were psychotic. This percentage is rather high comparing with other island of Izu. It was also noticed that there would be some consanguineous relations among these psychotics. Using Prof. Koike's classification, it was recognized that finger-prints were frequent in the type S and in the type OW in hand.
The blood pressure of 3, 832 inhabitants, over 90 % of the villagers aged older than six in a farm-village of the Tohoku district, was measured through each season of a year, and the influence of individual factors such as physique, profession, diet, labour, and pregnancy upon the blood pressure level was studied. The results obtained were as follows: 1 Though the systolic and diastolic blood pressure rose according to age, on the systolic there was found a significant peak in males between 20 and 24, and in females between 15 and 19. On the diastolic there was not found such a remarkable rise, therefore pulse pressure became higher in the above mentioned age groups. 2. Seasonally, the systolic was highest in winter and lowest in spring, and diastolic was high both in winter and in summer for males. For females the systolic was higher: both in winter and in summer, and the diastolic was higher rather in summer, and lowest in spring. 3. The correlation between blood pressure and body-height and-weight was clearly found in the developing ages of adolescence. In females some correlation between blood pressure and weight was recognized also in the climacteric. ages. 4. The positive correlation of between children and their parents was proved about blood pressure by X2-test. 5. In females, the level of the systolic was higher in the families of farmers than in those of non-farmers. 6. Females of farming families who had smaller rice field areas showed the higherdiastolic. In both sexes, families who had larger vegetable field areas had the lower systolic. 7. The influence of diet was proved only for younger adult males. It was observed that those who ate more rice had a higher systolic. 8. Male drinkers and heavy smokers had a higher systolic. 9. Mothers had lower systolic blood pressure than married women without children.
It is generally believed that the excellent body conditions are parallel to the strength of phisique and also to the resistance toword diseases. Therefore, bulky man has his vital force much stronger than the average and poor people has. It may be sure that bulky man is more healthy than the average manduring some period of his life, but it has to be understood these healthy conditions are hold by himself temporarily, but it cannot be the index of health through his lifetime. The author collected 578 males aged from 44 years old to 57 years in 1957. Data of their body measurements are listed in their school health records and reserved in their school. The files of resords contain the results body examination in each school year during their school ages. Whether they are alive or not in 1957 are questioned to themselves, their relatives, their schoolmates & classmates, local officers at theirresidences, and their parmanent domicile family record books. Among 578, at the time of survey, 464 are secured to notify still alive, 39 are dead by war, 71 by disease, 2 by suicide, and 3 by accidents. Main findings are as follows: 1. At six years of age, the body structure height, weight, chest length, and Rohrer index, and their longevity are not related so high, but attwelve years old, it is significant that the overweighted boys show poorer longevitythan the average and under average. 2. And also the body growth from six to twelve is related to theirlongevity. The rapid growth means the short longevity. The coefficient of correlation between body measurements at eleven years of age and that of adult's, is about plus 0.75. Therefore the general findings from life insurance company on the overweighted adult and thir risk to die each year, may be expected to be extended back to their school ages. The main findings of this survey support this speculation
The author studied the flactuation of surface tension of the serumin reference to menstrual cycle. In a nursing school 8 girl-students were selected as subjects who had -experienced regular monthly cycle. Using a drop method of the author's own device, following result was obtained from 35 days' measurements. 1. The normal value of surface tension of serum in adult females was about 65 -dyne/cm. 2. Surface tension in 7 females out of 8 reduced by 1.03-3.01 per cent on a day at a time 9-12 days prior to the expected menstruation.
Grip strength and back strength were measured twice a day (in the morning and evening) on every other day in 10 healthy girl students (18 -19 of age). The result obtained from 60 days' measurements was as follows: 1. Individual difference was remarkable in patterns of the fluctuation in muscular strength as referred to the monthly cycle. 2. Back strength of 6 cases inclined to be reduced from several days before menstruation to intermenstrual period. Other 4 cases showed no change. 3. Grip strength was more stable than back strength. The latter is sometimes affected by the influence of pains in abdominal region during menstruation. 4. The fact that the reduction of muscular strength in the evening compared with that in the morning, was more remarkable before and during menstruation is discussed.
A biometric study was conducted in Murayama, basin Yamagata Prefecture, Japan, in February 1956 for the purpose of finding out anthropological characeristics of inhabitans of Murayama basin. North Murayama County, East Murayama County and West Murayama County which were relatively in isolated, from brood mixture with other communities were chosen and 625 adult males were studied with reference to the anthropological measurement of the trunk, limbs, head and face. On the basis of 27 items obtained from the direct measurement and subsequent computation, detailed analysis were available. To sum up, it can be said that - judging from the results of the mesurement of qualties considered most valuable in consititional anthropology, the inhabitants of the Murayama basin of the Yamagata Prefecture possess a closer affinity to the Iwashiro Atami inhabitants adjoint to them by a high way, rather than to the Shonai inhabitants who although of the same Yamagata Prefecture are cut off from the Murayama basin by the Dewa Mountain Range. This is due to the fact that the Shonai district facing theJapan Sea was Shonai inhabitants than there mountain-blocked neighbours.
N. ARAI, Y. SHIBATAH, . YAMAMOTJO., MURATA, K. MUKOYAMYA., ISHIKAWAM, . OKADAH, . NOGUHCI, M, MISU, S. MIYAMOTOan d T. MARUYAMA During July, 1958, the authors made census for Ukishima, Ibaraki prefecture in Japan. The results were as follows: 1) On account of the frequent population movement, the rate of inbreeding was relatively low (3.75% of the population) and this. rate was nearly equal to the average of Japan. 2) The rate of endogenous mental disorders was not high (0.5% of the population) and especially there was no manic-depressive psychosis, including hereditary factor. 3) The rate of schizophrenia was somewhat high and there was recognized many patients who recovered well from the illness. we recognized more the selection in this schizophrenic group. 4) Both the rate of inbreeding and incidence of endogenous mental disorders, among those who migrated from various cities, showed no specialities. However, the higher rate of various mental disorders was recognized as compared with other districts
Conception among prostitutes in Yoshiwara area is on the increase. Seventy-one per cent have conceived, and 62.5% have had abortions since becoming prostitutes. Comparing this rate with 45.3%, that is for the whole of Tokyo, it is very high. Thus birth control, of venereal disease has become a great problem in Yoshiwara. As a preventive we have always advise, does not satisfy the male customers and chemical contraceptives are scarcely used. So, since the end of 1954 we have been prescribing Ben and ring, etc., devices which are used by women which are not so troublesome and are useful contraceptives. They have been used only by those who apply for them being not yet permitted by the Minister of Health and Welfare. When people contract Venereal Disease, especially Gonorrhea, a week of antibiotic therapy with mycillin, aureomycin, etc., with the Ben still in situ is ineffective. After removal of the Ben, therapy is effective in three days. It appears that gonococcei remain trapped between the Ben and the cervix. In our view, therefore, pipe-form Ben is not a suitable contraceptive device for prostitutes.
We investigated pupil's luncheons twice, in spring and autumn, 1956, at Nishiura primary school, and once in autumn. 1956, at Ema primary school. The results of dietetical analysis are as follows: 1) Most of the pupils took calory from staple food, which was steamed rice and barley, in the percentage of 60 to 80. 2) The quality of supplementary food shows a comparatively favou rably tendency in 15% of cases or so. 3) In the result of dietetical analysis, most of the pupils got calorie from staple food. The gross weight of protein on the averge they took was 11-15 grams or so, the animal protein of which showed 4.5-5.8 grams. Regarding Vitamin, they took no Vitamin C. 4) As above mentioned, we have recognized by this investigation that the pupil's luncheon in the agricultural districts has some deficiency from the dietetical standpoint.
have, from the standpoint of constitutional anthropology, made a detailed survey of 620 male adults in the vicinity of the present Soja City. This was the central region of the Bichu district, being the cradle of the ancient Kibi civilization. The populace was pretty well settled, and the descendants of the ancient Kibi lineage have flourished there for generations. The study was conducted over a period of 5 months from May to October of 1956 in 34 communities, covering in detail of 26 items. As a result of constitutional investigations we have reached the following conclusions. Judging from the measurement results of the most valuable features in constitutional anthropology, the people of the Bichu district have been found to bear a close resemblance to the Yamato and Izumo peoples who in prehistoric times have migrated from the Asian Mainland bringing over with them a highly developed civilization. It is of special interest to note the relation between the Bichu, Izumo, and Yamato peoples; for the Bichu peoples who are descendants of the Kibi lineage, considered to be a branch of the Yamato Imperial family, show a stronger affinity to the Izumo peoples with whom they have probably held communication over the Chugoku mountains, rather than to the aforesaid Yamato peoples.