To elucidate the relationship between estimate of dairy salt intake and urinary salt excretion, and to develop a questionnaire for the estimation of dairy NaCI intake, we conducted area surveys on 62 females living in an agricultural district and 50 females living in a fishery district. Collected data were about all the food intakes in three days, all the urine through 24 hours, and life habits questionnaire. The correlation coefficient were 0.393 with highly statistical significance between urinary NaCI excretion and computed NaCI intake by food survey, while the salt scale of the life habits questionnaire was found to be higher correlated, 0.410, with the NaCI excretion. Moreover, by means of Quantification Theory I to obtain the most appropriate weights for categories of items of the salt scale, multiple correlation coefficient of the salt scale with urinary NaCI excretion became to be 0.504 with high significance. Finally, it was strongly suggested that the use of questionnaire must be a powerful tool to estimate the dairy salt intake in epidemiologic studies as well as food survey.
Methods used for estimating physical activity measurement are suitable exclusively for adults. They are difficult to apply for the aged. The objective of this study is to assess actual condition of the daily energy expenditure (EE) and daily activity factor (DAF:EE/ basal metabolic rate -1) of the aged using heart rate (HR). Subjects used were 42 aged people: 17 men and 25 women, 35 from nursing home and 7 from their home, aged from 70.0 to 88.4 years old. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) was measured actually and EE was estimated by HR- oxygen consumption (VO2) method based on the two experimental active and non-active conditions formulas, between HR and VO2. Results obtained are as follows: 1. Mean BMRs measured in men and women were 20.5 kcal/kg and 19.8 kcal/kg, respectively. Mean EEs were 1590 ± 272 kcal/d and 1360 ± 264 kcal/d and mean EEs adjusted for weight were 27.4 ± 5.0 kcal/kg and 27.1 ± 5.4 kcal/kg in men and women, respectively. 2. Mean DAFs estimating from BMR and EE were 0.32 ± 0.22 for men, 0.33 ± 0.23 for women and 0.33 ± 0.23 on average. 3. Significant correlation (p<0.05) was obtained between DAF and the distance of measured BMR from standard BMR shown in the Recommended Dietary Allowances for the Japanese. The results obtained suggest that more physical activity is needed for these subjects, and BMR of active aged people was higher than that of the less.
Relation between lifestyle and results of health examination was analyzed in 1, 337 men and women, aged 40, 45, 55, 60 and 65 years old, who had health examination conducted at 9 municipalities in Hida district, Gifu Prefecture, Japan. They completed a self-administered questionnaire including various aspects of lifestyle and health behavior. These data were compared with the results of health examination including blood pressure, electrocardiographic and f unduscopic findings, and blood chemistries. The percentage of "very hard activity" in their daily physical activity level (I, light activity; II, moderate activity; III, hard activity; N, very hard activity) was the highest in their fifties in both sexes. The mean health practice scores were higher for women than for men and positively related to age in men and women. The degree of self-rated stress was the lowest in men in their sixties, especially in those with "hard activity". Blood pressure and electrocardiographic and/or f unduscopic findings were related to age in both sexes. Blood pressure showed also a positive correlation with drinking and negative correlation with smoking; positive correlation with the degree of obesity was found in women. Serum lipid level was negatively correlated with age in men. In multiple regression analysis age in both sexes and electrocardiographic and/or funduscopic findings in men had significant independent effects on health practice scores. The percentages of visits of physicians who needed medical care, depending on the examination results, were 50.9% for blood pressure measurement, 54.0% for serum lipid level, as compared with 69.6% for electrocardiographic findings. We conclude that the cooperation should be strengthened between municipalities and physicians in order to increase interest of residents in the health examinations and complete the health guidance after the examinations, depending on the results.
The relationship between total fertility rate (TFR) and infant mortality rate (IMR) in 1984, 1988 and 1991 for all countries was analyzed, using world Population Data Sheet published by the United Nations. The results indicated that no relationship existed between TFR and IMR in each of the years for the countries whose IMR was 100 and over, although the strong positive correlation was found between them for countries whose IMR was less than 100. The changes of TFR and IMR between the respective years were compared for the countries whose IMR was 100 and over in 1984. For all these countries, the proportions of countries which TFR and IMR decreased were 40% in 1984-1988, 45% in 1988-1991 and 49% in 1984-1991, respectively. Meanwhile, those which IMR decreased and TFR increased were 23% in 1984-1988, 26% in 1988-1991 and 27% in 1984-1991, respectively. Furthermore, 77% of the countries whose IMR was 100 and over in 1984 decreased in IMR until 1988. Among those, 54% decreased in TFR until 1991, while 46% did not. The results show that TFR does not necessarily follow the decline of IMR for the high-IMR-countries.