The school children are suitable for longitudinal studies on growth and development. The total of 1, 005 children (502 males and 503 females) of Takanawadai primary school in Tokyo were measured by their height, weight, chest girth and sitting height. The objects in this study are the children who entered the school from 1947 to 1952. The measurement was carried out once a year through 6 years' school life. The results of the longitudinal analysis on these subjects are as follows : 1. The average height, sitting height and weight of the children in this study group were superior to die average of the whole country. But the chest girth was definitely inferior. 2. The body type was classified in nine groups by height and weight at the entrance to the school as follows : large obese, large average, large slender, average obese, average, average slender, small obese, small average and small slender. 1) Yearly increment of the growth rate of weight was the highest in the average group. 2) The age of pre-pubertal manifestations were different by sex and measurements. In general, female was advanced in yearly increment of growth rate. 3. Growth curve of all groups tended to be concentrated to the curve of the average group. 4. Small average group and large average pagsed through the similar trend of growth curve to the average group
The relationship between an unbalanced diet and the frequency of various senses of taste to wards the three reagents, P. T C., lactose and Aspirin were previously reported several times by the present author. As the result of his further researehes on the heredity of taste-blindness, the author has reached the following conclusion; 1) When the subjects are divided into two groups according to whether or not the marriage within the blood and the marriage without the blood relation, the percentage of appearances of taste-blindness is rather higher in case of the intermarriage. 2) The author has investigated 491 persons of 79 families about the effects of the three above-mentioned reagents and has come to the conclusion that all the appearences of taste-blindness can be supposed to be the simple recessive heredity in Mendelism and to have no bases to support the dominant heredity. 3) As for the heredity of the preceding tastes and the false tastes to the three agents 79 families have been examined, and it has been ascertained by the author that as the taste-blindness is recessive in heredity to the taste-ability, so the preceding taste and the false taste are to be ascribed to recessive heredity to the normal taste
The Statistics of diseases at Toshima Island were obtained as follows : 1. This survey was made by using medical record at a clinic established by Toshima village during the two following periods, from April 1953 to March 1954 and from March, 1956 to February 1957. (a) New cases at clinic were 470 during a period of a year from March 1956, 387 during from April, 1953 to March 1954, while the size of population on March, 1956 was 360 and that of on April, 1954 was 366. (b) About the classification of diseases, diseases of respiratory organs (mainly common cold), intestinal organs, nervous system, sensory organs and skin disease etc held greater part. Specific diseases which were characteristic to occupation were not recognized. The prevalence ratio of trachoma in school children decreased in recent year and was only 50 per cent in 1956. (c) The legal infectious diseases were not recognized at the time of the survey. The percentage of positive tuberculin reactor in younger age group was 60.7%. 2. The intestinal parasites eggs were found in 36.0% of specimens examined. Ascaris in 30.2% and hookworm in 5.8%. 3. The maximum blood pressure for over 31 years of age, in general, indicated lower tendency compared with that of the Japanese average. Maximum and minimum average figures were 131.0mmHg and 70.8mmHg in male, 132.6mmHg and 74.8mmHg in female.
It has already been _known that the fall in the percentage of consanguineous marriage and the enlargement of the range of mating is in close correlation. The author made investigations on the range of mating in Kawamata town which is located in the northern part of Fukushima prefecture. The results obtained were as follows; 1. Marriages within blood in Ojima and Otsunaki districts of the village were 22.97% and 11.29% respectively, while in Yamakiya district the perccntage was so high as 47.31% indicating a remarkable narrowness of the range of mating in the district. 2. In Ojima and Otsunaki districts the range of mating tended to be enlarged according to younger years of age but such a tendency was not observed in Yamakiya district. 3. The range of mating of consanguineous marriage was far narrower than that of non-consanguineous marriage. The above-mentioned resnits were wholly concordant with the results of the study of consanguineous marriage in the same district which revealed the extremely high percentage of consauguineou marriage in Yamakiya district in comparison with other districts and the absence of the decreasing tendency of the percentage in proportion to younger years of age in the district. These facts may be considered to indicate the importance of enlargement of the range of mating for the purpose of the reduction of consanguineous marriage.
It is well Known that the consanguineous marriage plays an important role in the manifestation of recessive hereditary disease. All inhabitants in agricaltural area in Kawamata town in the northern part of Fukushima Prefecture were subject to a systemic survey on consaguineous marriage. The results obtained were as follows: 1. Among Ojima, Otsunaki and Yamakiya districts, the preceding two districts showed about 8% of consanguineous marriage, but the percentage in Yamakiya district was as high as 16%. 2. There were some hamlets which showed a high percentage of consanguineous marriage exceeding 20%. 3. In Ojima district the percentage of consanguineous marriage showed a decreasing tendency in proportion to younger years of age, while no such a tendency was observed in Yamakiya distrct. The remakably high percentage of consanguineous marriage in Yamakiya district may be attributed to its geographical situation cold weather, high latitude and isolation from other districts are pointed out. The hamlets which showed high percentage of consanguineous marriage in the same district were located in places difficult of access. In addition, these hamlets were special communities which have been called leprosy hamlets. Such a social element as mentioned above should not be disregarded as one of the factors for the high percentage of consanguineous marriage. The absence of the decreasing tendency of consanguineous marriage in Yamakiya district, different from Ojima district, may be considered to indicate little change of cultural and traffic situation in the district since old times.
Industrial fatigue was examined by means of flicker-test and subjective fatigue test in a certain factory of heavy electric appliance. According to the results obtained, conveyer system generally causes more intensive fatigue than the other type of working system when unskilled workers are involved. The present results will be followed up by the same method of observation after the workers acquire more skill in the conveyer system.