This study was conducted to clarify the actual condition of drinking of 2, 920 residents of a rural community in Aomori, Japan. The study group consisted of all the residents aged 65 and over (2, 220 subjects) and a random sample of the population aged 20-64 years (700 subjects). From the study group, 310 men with a daily drinking habit were analyzed to clarify the relationship between drinking behavior and environmental factors, and to find out which drinking behavior and environmental factors have an influence on health status. The results obtained were as follows: (1) Within the study group, 55% of the old-aged men and 17% of the old-aged women drank. For the middle-aged subjects, 73% of men and 61% of women drank. The proportion of those who had a daily drinking habit were 30% for the old-aged men, 2% for the old-aged women, 28% for the middle-aged men and 12% for the middle-aged women. (2) The proportion of those being in good health was the lowest within those who stopped drinking, and the proportion of those being in good health within those with a daily drinking habit was not higher than that of those who have never drunk. (3) Drinking behavior was influenced not only by basic attributes such as age, but also by environmental factors such as stress and/or self-pessimism, lifestyle habits and family. (4) According to the results of the path analysis, (1)drinking volume was significantly influenced by the factors of age, lifestyle habits and stress and/or self-pessimism; (2)KAST (a screening test for alcoholism) was significantly influenced by the factors of drinking volume and stress and/or self-essimism; (3)selfrated health was significantly influenced by the factors of family composition and stress and/or self-pessimism. It can be seen that stress and/or self-pessimism was a very important factor influencing all three aspects of drinking volume, KAST and self-rated health.
To clarify the effect of farm work time on blood pressure and blood cells status, 27 male and 29 female aged healthy farmers (70-86 years old) were asked weekly farm work times, measured forearm blood pressures and collected venous bloods. They were categorized by sex, by age (70-79 y and 80- y) and by weekly farm work hours (0; no-N, s 28; moderate-M, >28 h/w; heavy farm work time group H-FW). Systolic blood pressures of male and female H-FW were significantly lower than those of MFW, and diastolic blood pressures, hemoglobin concentrations, hematocrit values, mean cell volumes and mean cell hemoglobin concentrations of red blood cells showed same tendency in 70- 79 y. White blood cell numbers also tended to decrease by farm work in 80- y males and females, and platelet numbers tended to be high in females and M-FW. These results suggested that farm work time effects on blood pressure, anemic tendency, and blood cells status.
The Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene has been implicated as one of the major genetic components of osteoporosis. We evaluated the relationship between the polymorphism in the VDR gene and the bone mineral density (BMD) of second metacarpus. The Fokl and Bsml genotypes were determined in 109 and 108 premenopausal Inner Mongolian women (35 49 years old), respectively. The BMD of second metacarpus was measured by computed X-ray densitometry(CXD). The bone-alkaline phosphatase (B-Alp) as a marker of bone formation, crosslaps (CL/Cr)as a marker of bone resorption, 25OHD, 1, 25 (OH) 2D3, body mass index (BMI), grip power and intakeof calcium were also measured. With regard to the distribution of Foki in 109 women, 58 (53.2%) women were "FF", 45 (41.3%) women were "Ff" and 6 (5.5%) women were "if". The composition of Bsml genotype in 108 women was 87 (80.6%) for "bb", 18 (16.7%) for "Bb" and 3 (2.8%) for "BB", respectively. The GS/D (BMD of second metacarpus bone), GSmax (BMD of bone cortex of second metacarpus) and GSmin (BMD of bone marrow of second metacarpus) of non-dominant hand with FF genotype were significantly higher than those with ff genotype (2.77 ± 0.23 vs 2.46 ± 0.23 Almm; 3.79 ± 0.28 vs 3.36 ± 0.30 Almm; 2.77 ± 0.34 vs 2.40 ± 0.41 Almm, p < 0.05, respectively). The GS/D and GSmax of dominant hand with FF genotype were significantly higher than those with ff genotype (2.80 ± 0.20 vs 2.51 ± 0.20 Almm; 3.82 ± 0.25 vs 3.46 ± 0.26 Almm, p < 0.05, respectively). GSmin of dominant hand with FF genotype was higher than that with ff genotype (2.77 ± 0.32 vs 2.46 ± 0.44 Almm, p < 0.1). The markers of bone metabolism, 25OHD, 1, 25 (OH) 2D3, BMI, grip power and intake of calcium showed no difference by Foki genotype. The BMD did not show any significant difference among Bsml genotype in premenopausal women in Inner Mongolia. There were no statistically significant interactions to those parameter of bone density between the Foki and Bsml genotypes. These findings suggest that BMD of second metacarpus may be related to Foki genotypes, although there were no evidences that Bsml genotype was associated with BMD of second metacarpus.