Objective : This study investigates whether the working status of mothers results in an unbalanced diet (no acceptance of disliked foods) of their preschool children, and the relationship of the preschool children's unbalanced diet and its relevant factors. Methods : This cross-sectional study was conducted using the responses of 1,145 mothers at 15 public kindergartens in a suburban city located in the Kanto region. A self-rating questionnaire examined mother's age and working, child's age and gender, the unbalanced diet of mother and their child, and eating education provided to child. Results : The unbalanced diet of children were not associated with the working status of their mothers. Among non-working mothers, the causal factors of the unbalanced diet of their children were classified as the unbalanced diet of the mother, neglecting to instruct child not to waste food, not giving to child's meal child disagreeable foods or weak foods. Among working mothers, not engaging their child to help in the preparation of meals was the most prominent cause of children's diet unbalances. Conclusion : It was suggested that although the working status of mothers has no direct effect on the unbalanced diet of their childrens, differences in the factors relating to the unbalanced diet of their childrens depend on whether the mother is employed or unemployed.
We aimed to determine the relation between child-rearing stress and self-efficacy as factors related to postnatal depression ; this will facilitate healthy child development and provide maternal support, thus decreasing the incidence rate of postnatal depression. We used the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS) and the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) to assess maternal mental health and self-efficacy, respectively. Eleven child-rearing stress categories were specified based on a previous research. Of 865 mothers up to 4 months post-delivery, 459 (52.1%) responded ; 415 valid responses were analyzed. Eighty-eight mothers (21.2%) had EPDS scores of 9 or more and 192 mothers (46.2%) had“low” or“somewhat low” GSES points. GSES was significantly low (p<0.001) in the EPSD 9 or more group, and child-rearing stress points were significantly high (p<0.001), confirming the relationship between GSES and child-rearing stress as factors related to EPDS. The high EPDS group experienced intense child-rearing stress due to lack of child-rearing confidence ; this is attributed to declining birth rates and increasing nuclearization of families that result in many women without any child-rearing experience. This significantly influences maternal mental health. As mental health support for mothers, early support by home visits is a critical plan element. Examining not only their mental health status but details of their child-rearing stress and confidence in childcare is considered to provide effective support.