A questionnaire on exercise habit was mailed to a randam sample of 1, 600 middle aged Japanese, of whom 655 people responded (40.9 percent). The measures of exercise habit used were those delineated in Stages of Exercise Behavior Change (SEBC) (Marcus et al., 1992; Marcus & Simkin, 1993). We found that 18.7 percent of the subjects exercised regularly in daily life (three or more times per week for 20 minutes or longer), as described in "Action" and"Maintenance" categories of SEBC . "Precontemplation" and "Contemplation" included samples who had not exercised at all, and their total was 52.9 percent. As the reason for practice of exercise and sports, most of the samples responded "to promote health and physical fitness (54 .8 percent)", "to enjoy exercise and sports themselves (22.0 percent)" and "to communicate with friends (18.9 percent)". There were only a few answers "to train competitively". Females were found to be more likely to drop out of exercise routines (33.2 percent), whereas males were likely to continue (36.7 percent). It was demonstrated that self-efficacy for exercise (?A= .459) contributed to exercise behavior as the strongest direct effect by using path analysis. Also revealedwas that social support did not directly effect exercise behavior was not directly affected by social support but by the self-efficacy for exercise (β=.252), tendency to exercise (β= .212) and perception of exercise needs (β= .203). Experience of exercise in school-age (β=.293) and parental interest in exercise and sports (β=.174) highly effected the variables of tendency to exercise.
The following results have been obtained from the comparative study on the life-style as well as the self-awareness and attitude toward health between inhabitants(N =1031) in a typical agricultural area in Wangxiu Town, Taicang Country, Jiangsu Province and those (N = 993) in a suburban area of a metropolis in Shanghai, Jiading City. 1) People who keep the good health habit of Breslow's seven principles, namely a desirable life-style, are more in Wangxiu Town than in Shanghai. 2) People of both areas seldom conduct physical exercises, and smoking and alcohol drinking are more frequent in men than in women. 3) Young people show a lower rate of having breakfast and have more snacks between meals. 4) People in Jiading City tend to be more obese than those in Wangxiu Town. 5) People in Wangxiu Town in a desirable health habit complain of less subjective symptoms and show less decline in physical strength. 6) Regarding the seven principles of good health habit, the average scores of men and women in Wangxiu Town area are 3.8 and 4.8, whereas those of men and women in Jiading City area are 3.2 and 4.5. 7) Many people of both areas report that they feel "good" in their selfevaluation regarding their own health condition and physical fitness. 8) The subjective evaluation of the subjects' own health tends to change from "good" to "average" at their fifties, while the rate of illness tends to increase in the sixties in age. 9) The factor analysis on subjective symptoms reveals significant relationships between each factor and individual's life-style. 10) With regard to mental health, more people in Jiading City, the older in particular, express uneasiness and dissatisfaction for their everyday lives and theirwhole lives. The Jiading City women's SDS score of 51.53 indicates their light degree of melancholic condition. From these findings, it can be concluded that more people in Jiading City complain of subjective symptoms and unidentified complaints. In addition, men and younger people, compared respectively with women and older people, show undesirable, unhealthy life-style, causing unhealthy condition. Therefore, education for healthy life-style is judged indispensable for these groups.
To understand the relationships between the fathers' consciousness and behavior regarding diet and those of their families, a questionnaire survey was conducted for616 cases, each of which consisted of a father, a mother and a child; the subject children were in the second, fourth or sixth grade in elementary schools. Using factor anlaysis, principal factors of consciousness and behavior on diet were obtained separately for fathers, mothers and children. Then, correlations of these factors between fathers and mothers, between mothers and children, and between fathers and children were examined. From 2 factors, i.e. "cooperation in meal preparation" and "intention of having meals with familie s", the fathers were classified into 2 groups. The major findings were as follows. 1. The correlations between the fathers' principal factors of consciousness and behavior on diet and those of the mothers demonstrated high interrelatednesses fromeach other. Those factors between the fathers and the children, however, were not closely correlated. 2. In cases that the fathers intended to have meals with the families, the mothers tended to recognize meals at home significant and to pay more attention tomeals suitable to the children. In cases that the fathers seldom took meals with their families but intended to cooperate in preparation of meals, the mothers tended to pay little attention to meals but to give suited dietary education to the children. In contrast, when the fathers seldom took meals with the families and had less intention in cooperation of preparing meals, the mothers tended to save expenses for diets and to pay less attention to dietary education to the children. It is thus concluded that the influence of the fathers' behavioral patterns, such as meals with families and cooperation in preparing meals, on the children's consciousness and behavior on diet was obvious through those of the mothers.
In order to assess activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) in Korean rural elderlies and to investigate the related factors, we surveyed 705 elderly persons (277 males and 428 females) aged 60 years and over living in fourteen villages of Gang-long Myon, a rural area in Kyung-Ju County of Kyung Sang Prefecture. They were interviewed by 18 trained health workers using the questionnaire from 3 to 10 July in 1995. The results were as follows: 1) The prevalence of disability in ADL ranged from 0.7% in eating to 6.5% in incontinence and significantly increased with aging for all 6 items, both for males and females. The prevalence was higher for males than females except "incontinence". 2) The prevalence of disability in IADL ranged from 11.4% in preparing meals to 21.4% in managing deposits and increased significantly with aging for all 5 items, both for males and females. The prevalence was higher for females than males except "preparing meals" . 3) In the results of stepwise multiple regression analyses of ADL and IADL as the dependent factor, the most contributing factors for ADL were age, health status, and leisure time, and those for IADL were age, living expenses, ADL, family type, job, and leisure time.