We studied the physique of school children in Yamabe district, Ohami-shirasato town, Chiba prefecture from 1904 to 1977. The main results were as follows: The physiques (height, weight and chest measurement) of the children admitted to school from 1904 to 1907 were better than average for children of the same ages, throughout Japan. Gradually the measurements became less than average. However, children admitted to school in 1972-1974 were better than average in some aspects of physique. Rohrer indexes of the children were usually superior to the all-Japan averages. Considering the chronological change of the indexes between urban and rural areas in Japan, the physique of the children in Yamabe district has changed from that of a rural area to that of an urban one. In principle component analysis, the eigen values of principle component 1 distributed from 11.0 to 13.4 and explained 60%-70% of the variances of all measurements. In factor analysis, factor 1 explained about 80% of the variance of all mesurements Factor loadings were higher for height than those for weight and chest measurement for all school years. The estimated communalities of 2 big factors were generally high in all measurements.
This study is a descriptive, comparative study which attempts to explore the nature of autonomous community organizations involved in self help health activities . The data was collected by individual interviews with representatives from 36 community organizations which dealt with health problems in Matsukawa-cho, ma-gun, Nagano-ken, Japan, from April, 1980 to March, 1981. The research findings are as follows. 1. Almost all activities of the community organizations, which are comprised of various small groups, are based on BURAKU (neighborhood communities). The organiza tions are autonomous with regards to structure, financing, activities, and the election of ficials. Co-ordination of activities of the organizations is carried out at the town level through meetings. 2. The joing process of decision making is considered to be important. Themes are diverse and relate to community life and activities. 3. Professionals are deeply involved with the organizational activities. Among the professionals are public health nurses, the social science teacher, and the nutritionist. The professionals have expertise in the areas of organizational management, and in the clarification of problems through people's self help activities and fact finding studies. 4. The people's expectations of the professionals is clear. The adult educator is to be a teacher, directly assisting in their learning; an organizer; and a supervisor of the other professionals. The public health nurses are co-workers in the diagnosis and treatment of problems; organizers and facilitators; and health specialists. The people expect the professionals to help them to develop and deepen their own understandings . They see themselves as the initiators, and the professionals as a support team . This view is particularly strong with respect to the physicians. 5. While activities are centered around small groups, the groups function as a system which reaches throughout the town. The connection of each professional and the supporting local administration is well defined, and secures the professional's role within the system.
The structure of the population of Japan has been rapidly changing and the proportion of old people against the total population has been increasing. Such a change in the population has affected both the pattern of diseases and the mortality patterns. Although the mortality patterns are usually analyzed by sex, age, or age group, we analyzed them using Proportional Mortality Indicator or PMI which was introduced by Drs. Swaroop, S. and Uemura, K. in WHO (1957). This indicator is a very simple one, but is useful as a health parameter, because we can see the helth status of the observed population without knowing its structure. The purpose of this study is to observe the trends of mortality patterns of the main causes of deaths besides all causes of deaths in Japan using PMI and to consider the background circumstances or causes of its change.