It is a subject of question how the factor of living circumstances of the society affects the health of girl students who are in their adolescence. We can find some fragmentary reports on its inf uence over the outside physical conditions such as stature or weight. However, few studies have been done with any attention on endoplasum. I investigated approximately 3, 000 girl students who are considered to be living in similar circumstances and saw how circumstances of life, i. e. city life, country life, or those who were born in the country and are presently living in a city, family occupations, financial conditions, and work affect the constitution and the blood gravity in endoplasum. As to the build of the body those who were born in the country and are living in a ctiy are the superior of all, and city residents, and next country residents follow. I want to note that a remarkable growth of body of those from the country is seen after they came to live in a city. Seen from their parents' occupation, daughters of physicians, lawyers, and directors of big enterprising companies are superior than daughters of white coller workers and farmers. Financially, seen from their food expenditure, which is considered to be most directly affected by the family income, those who spend more than 4, 000 yen for food have superior constitution to and more satisfactory growth than those who spend less. Also I found that though temporarily long hours of study affect the student's stature and weight. It is not clear whether or not this is caused merely by food problem but we cannot deny the greatness of its influence. From the investigation of blood gravity I found that there is a certain rela. tionship between coustitution and growth: those who are superior in constitution, especially in weight, have greater blood gravity, and financial circumstances are also seen reflected in blood gravity. What the blood gravity means to adolescent people is especially significant. Of course without any knowledge of particulars of living conditions of students, such as conditions of dormitory, etc. we would not be able to know the reason why those who came to live in a city from the country show such remarkable improvements in constitution in a single year. Also I investigated the subject from menses, which is one of the inner conditions of body. I compared those who have some accompanying symptoms and those without them, and also difference of age. During the menses the blood gravity goes down and shows a considerable change of value in usual examinations. Those who have some accompanying symptoms have tower blood gravity than those without them. Younger people are less affected by menses, which would be an important key in the diagnosis of any disorder of menses.
In order to know the influence of social living circumstances, i. e. life in city, life in farm village, or life of these who came from the country and are presently living in a city, occupation and financial state of family, etc., over the blood figure the writer examined approximately 3, 000 girl students who are considered to be living on normal standard of living and to be healthy. The nmber of red blood-corpuscle of city students are greater than that of country students, and the number of white blood-corpuscle is the contrary. Of the percentage of white blood-corpuscle city students have more pro-neutral white blood-corpuscles, less pro-acid white corpuscles, and less lymphatic corpuscles. No difference was observed among various occupations and among different incomes of the student's family. The writer took up the menses as one of the circumstances of the body and executed the same observation on menses: for those who have accompanying symptoms during the menses period and for those who have not, and also for each age group. Red blood-corpuscle decreased during menses period while white blood-corpuscle increased. No difference was seen among different age groups.
In order to know the influence of social living circumstances, i. e. life in city, life in farm village, or life of these who came from the country and are presently living in a city, occupation and financial state of family, etc., over the blood figure the writer examined approximately 3, 000 girl students who are considered to be living on normal standard of living and to be healthy. The nmber of red blood-corpuscle of city students are greater than that of country students, and the number of white blood-corpuscle is the contrary. Of the percentage of white blood-corpuscle city students have more pro-neutral white blood-corpuscles, less pro-acid white corpuscles, and less lymphatic corpuscles. No difference was observed among various occupations and among different incomes of the student's family. The writer took up the menses as one of the circumstances of the body and executed the same observation on menses: for those who have accompanying symptoms during the menses period and for those who have not, and also for each age group. Red blood-corpuscle decreased during menses period while white blood-corpuscle increa-, : sed. No difference was seen among different age groups.
The correlations between the level of bodily growth (height, body weight and breast girth) on the one hand and the athletic ability (running, jumping, throwing and horizontal bar exercise) and the intelligence quotient on the other was studied with the primary and middle school children in Sendai as subjects. The subjects were divided into the groups of large, middle and small by bodily growth and the athletic ability and the athletic ability and the I.Q. were observed in comparison. The correlation coefficients bodily growth versus athletic ability and intelligence quotient were computed and by means of partial correlation, the first order coefficient was obtained by eliminating the age factor from the former coefficient. The second order coefficients were ; also obtained from the correlation between the height and the athletic ability by eliminating the factor of body weight, from the correlations between the body weight, the breast girth and the athletic ability by eliminating the factor of height and a comparative study was conducted on these correlations. In a very rough evaluation, I may conclude that of the children born in the same - month of the same year, the better developed in body usually have stronger athletic ability and higher intelligence quotient, but this tendency seems to diminish as the bodily growth nears summation. The ability of taking exercies suspended from horizontal bar is particularly heavily -affected by the difference in body weight, especially among girls.
A hygienic investigation was made to have some idea of the living of inhabitants in Fujisawa Town, Higashiiwai County, Iwate Prefecture where the cultivation of leaftabacco is prevalent. 1) This part of the prefecture is situated in the southern tip of Iwate Prefecture, adjacent of Miyagi Prefecture, located in the hillock zone on the west inclined plane stretching to the Kitakami Mountain Range, and about 10 and 60% of the area are fields and forest lands respectively, with households engaged in agricultural and forestry industries accounting for 80% of the whole households. 2) As regards the atmospheric phenomenon, the yearly average temperature is 9.8 C and in January, February and March, the temperature goes down below zero, the nortnwesterly prevailing wind being fairly strong. 3) The population composition forms a triangle with the low age group as a basis and the numbers of males and females for a population of 16, 398 are 7, 968 and 8, 430 respectively and though the males outnumber females up to 5-19 year age group, this situation is reversed in the following ages, the difference being larger in conjunction with increasing ages. 4) Rate of the population in employment is 51%. 5) The crude birth rate for the 5 years from 1946 through 1956 is 21.95 per 1, 000 population and the crude death rate is 9.57 per 1, 000 population. 6) With reference to the economic situation, the average income in this area is 51.4% of that in the prefecture and those in the farmhouses and nonfarmhouses are 1011 and 38.8% respectively, the former group being better off. 7) Cultural activity is not so brisk. 8) The number of medical facilities are 7 and that of physicians is 10. Popula iion per physician is 670 and the average number of patients per day in the whole town is 375 and in farmers' slack seasons they make a visit to clinics, the majority being with chronic diseases. 9) When persons engaged in cultivation for leaf-tabacco is compared with those for pure farming. i) Income per acres in the former group is 93, 292 yen and that in the latter is 186, 404 yen, the former being more profitable. ii) The former requires labor 5 to 6 times as great as that for the latter. iii) Percent of persons in the former showing hypertension with 150mmHg or over is 18.7%, being larger than 8.7% for those in the latter and the difference is obseverd in the 30-60 year age group. 10) The results of a nutritional survey revealed the deficiency in the amount of intake of animal protein, vitamin A and colored vegetables.
The writer made a biometric measurement of bodies, heads and faces for 528. adult inhabitants of Hongu-machi and Kumanogawa-machi situated in the valley of the upper course of the Kumano River, Wakayama perfecture, from the constitutional-anthropological point of view, in October, 1957. The summarized findings through thedetailed examination on measurements and indices over 25 items are as follows: 1. The average height of the inhabitants is 160.52±0, 26cm which belongs to“short -medium height” by Mr. Martin's classification and to “medium height” by Prof. Koya and his group. It is a similar type to those of the eastern part of Saitama prefecture and Shimoheii district, Iwate prefecture. 2. The average comparative-length of the upper limbs is 41.19±0.06. Over half of all, the higher ratio than other districts, belong to the “short arm” class. 3. The maximum length of head is 188.83±0.30mm which is similar to the inhabitantsof Hiuga and Iwaki. The maximum breadth of head is 153.62.±0.25mm which is similar to those Northern Shinshu, Southern Kyushu and Shimoheii district, Iwateprefecture. The average index number of length-breadth of head is 81.84±0.22 which belongs to “short head-length” by Martin's classification and is similar to the inhabitants of Tsushima island, Northern Shinshu and Hida. 4. The breadth of zygomatic arch is 144.29±0.23mm and the index of zygomatic arch is 77.54±0.15. Many of the facial types here belong to the middle type of the face classification. 5. The average number of the morphological face index is 83.87+0.21mm which is relatively low. The distribution of the face classification is similar to that of inhabitants of Murayama basin. The close similarity in the type difference is seen with Shinshu Azumi, Southern part of Noto Peninsula, Hida, Oku Noto and Murayama basin.