Recently, it has been reported that wild animals such as monkeys appear to human living space and might have damaged agricultural products at various places in Japan. The purpose of this study is to examine whether the change in land-use is related with the appearance of wild animals or not in a small city of east Yamanashi. An interview survey was conducted for 30 households that have been engaged in agriculture. The content of agriculture was the sericulture and cultivation of the self-consumption crops in 1945, however, only the latter is remained now. This change has brought on decrease of total tillage about one third and increase of abandoned mulberry fields. This survey showed there were three stages on changing land-use and contact with wild animals after 1945. First, the inhabitants watched the wild boars in their living area in 1965 when the mulberry fields were converted into other land-use such the fields for factories and of forestation. Then, the appearance of the boars began to increase and the monkeys began to be recognized in 1980's when the mulberry fields did not be cultivated completely. At the same time, those fields gradually became abandoned. Finally, in 1990's, all the inhabitants recognized appearance of boars and monkeys when the abandoned mulberry grew thick. Changes of living environments accompanied with the altered human occupational activity were expressed as the modified land-use with the change of agriculture, and they transfigured the natural environment. As the result, wild animals such as boars and monkeys are likely to appear to human living space.
To assess the usefulness of the recall-based self-report on cataract diagnosis or extraction as a means of case definition in a cohort study, the answers for an originally developed questionnaire on cataracts were compared with the medical records among 56 residents living in Iwate, Nagano, and Okinawa in Japan who had reported past history of cataract diagnosis. The difference in date of diagnosis between self-reports and medical diagnosis was very widely distributed, while the positive predictive value of self reports on past history of cataracts diagnosis exceeded 90%. As regards the history of cataract extraction, no discrepancy was found between self-reports and medical records. Although the self reported dates of extraction were more accurate than that of diagnosis, there were still a few largely discordant reports on extraction date and a tendency for reporting earlier date than real extraction date. From the comparisons on causes for cataracts, it was considered that the number of senile cataracts could be underestimated by self report. These results suggest that the recall-based self-report on cataract extraction may be a practical method for case definition in a cohort study, if it is followed by the confirmation of extraction date and cause for cataracts through the review of medical records, as compared with the use of self-reported cataract diagnosis.
Focusing attention on gender differences in stress and stress coping behavior in school teachers, attempts were made to clarify their relationship to awareness of duties, the Type A behavior and depression which presents problems with respect to adaptation to their duties. Twelve elementary and 12 junior high schools in Okinawa Prefecture were selected at random, and was performed in 331 teachers (128 male and 203 female) who answered all questions listed in the coping inventory for stressful situations (CISS). 1) Task-oriented coping showed a significant positive correlation with age in both male and female. It was higher in married persons than in unmarried persons in both male and female, and was highest in married male. Emotion-oriented coping was significantly higher in female than in male and also in female elementary school teachers than female junior high school teachers. Avoidance-oriented coping was significant higher in female than in male, and showed a significant negative correlation with age regardless of gender. It was higher in unmarried female, class teachers, and female in good health. 2) The factors of busyness and disharmony related to awareness of duties were significantly higher in female. 3) Multiple regression analysis by sex was performed using factors showing a significant correlation with coping behavior as independent variables and each coping behavior as dependent variables. On each coping behavior, it may be related to some factors in both male and female, while it is shown by the results stress-coping behavior shows gender differences. The results of the present study suggest it is necessary to cope with health problems in teachers in consideration of their gender differences and that social support strategies, including those at workplace, are important to prevent or solve mental and physical health problems.