The monthly body weight data of school children in different regions, the school A in urban area of Tokyo, the school B and C in rural areas of Gunma and Tochigi prefectures, were investigated in order to compare the regional patterns of seasonal variation in weight growth. The seasonal factors of each region and those of each children were calculated by a time-series analysis. The results obtained were as follows. 1) In all regional groups, the highly significant seasonality (p<0.0001) were observed. The seasonal patterns of low in summer, especially in July, were the same in all regional groups. However, the months in which the high values appeared were different among the groups. The amplitudes of seasonal variation were smaller in the children of school A than in the children of school B or C. 2) From the analysis of the seasonal patterns of each child, the minimum values in seasonal factor appeared in July in many children, and it was remarkable in the children of school B and C. 3) The effects of months on variation in weight growth were different between sexes, from the fact that the F-values in the stable seasonality test were much higher in boys than in girls.
The purpose of this study is to assess the significance of gate ball playing on the health and daily life of the elderly persons. The subjects were members of an old people's club in Tokushima prefecture. They were 92 persons playing gateball (55 males and 37 females) and 289 persons not playing gate ball (117 males and 172 females). We surveyed their health conditions, life styles and daily activities, and compared them between the group playing gate ball (GB group) and the group not playing gate ball (n-GB group). The results were as follows: 1. The number of males in the GB group was much more than that in the n-GB group. However, there was no significant difference in age. 2. The number of subjects visiting a physician in the GB group was more than that in the n-GB group, though GB group was feeling more healthy. However, the number of persons handicapped in activities of daily life were smaller in the GB group. In particular, the proportion of females subjectively feeling healthy was higher in GB group. 3. The mean obesity index and the ratio of the subjects whose obesity indexes were 20% and over were higher in the GB group than in the n-GB group. However, the mean red blood cell count, hemoglobin and hematocrit were higher, but the average of blood pressure was lower in the GB group than in the n-GB group. 4. Number of subjects participating social activities and leading useful life were significantly more in the GB group than in the n-GB group. We found that the subjects from GB group tended to be more active and leading a more useful life than those from the n-GB group.
The relationship between seasonal variation of body weight and the degree of obesity was examined in 133 Japanese primary school children living in Tokyo. Body weight was measured monthly for six years (except August) and stature three times a year (in April, September, and January). Time-series analysis of body weight was made by the Program of Census Method IIX-11 in which the original time-series 0 is assumed to consist of three components, i.e., the trend-and-cycle factor C, the seasonal factor S, and the irregular factor I; O=C×S×I. In general, it is said that peaks for weight appear in fall or winter and trough in summer. In this study, 79 out of 111 children whose percentages of standard weight were under 120% at the sixth grade showed weight gain in fall, winter, or spring. 17 children indicated no significant seasonal variation. However, 19 out of 22 children with percentage of standard weight >120% at the sixth grade showed weight gain in summer. Furthermore, in most of obese children at the sixth grade, their percentages of standard weight increased gradually during school life for six years and the peaks of seasonal factor observed in summer were getting more predominant. This suggests that weight gain in summer may be one of risk factors for obesity.
The health care system in Japan is reforming to adapt rapidly increasing aged population. Public health nurses (PHN) who have act great roles in health care seem to feel stress for adapting to such reformation. The circumstance of hospital nurses also become to be more severe by the shortage of nurses and rapid progress of clinical care. For comparing the extent of psychological stress between public health nurses and hospital nurses (HNS), the 30 item version of General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and questions related to job stress were applied to PHNs (n=276) working in health centers and local goverments in Nagasaki prefecture and HNS (n=420) working in a university hospital in Nagasaki City. The results are summarized as follows; 1. The mean score and high score rate using 7/8 cut-off point were respectively 7.53 and 41.7% for PHN and 7.74 and 46.2% for HNS. Judging from the previous results, these values may indicate higher stressful condition in both jobs. 2. High score rate of HNS decreased with age, while that of PHN kept similar level throughout ages. The 80% of PHN working for 6-10 years felt "inertia and mannerism" on their job, high frequency of high score group in middle aged PHN who have rich experience. The reform of health care system should improve their motivation for the activity of public health nurse. 3. Results of factor anlaysis indicated that factor structure of GHQ differed between PHN and HNS: GHQ scores of PHN were mainly contributed by somatic symptoms, such as "do not feel fine" and "no energy", while those of HNS were primarily contributed by depressed symptoms such as "unhappy and depressed", "lost confidence" and "nervous and strung up".
Drinking habits and health are very important topics (Imura .et al., 1988; Morimoto et al., 1988). Bando et al. (1988) reported the results of a series of investigations conducted on this subject at the Japanese Association of Rural Medicine. They stated that serum γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GTP) activity is one of the most useful biochemical indices for an objective evaluation of the consumption of alcoholic beverages (Rosalki and Rau, 1972). On the other hand, there is rapidly rising interest in athletic activities such as jogging and the marathon. It is believed to be worthwhile in the field of sports medicine as well as for daily health management to establish the range of variation of serum γ-GTP activity levels in healthy individuals who engage in these athletic activities. Studies have been conducted on the relationship between physical activities and serum enzyme activity. However most of these studies were conducted on male adults, and female adults were rarely selected as subjects. Furthermore the subjects in many studies were athletes who engaged in intense physical activity and the data were obtained before and after the athletic activity (Krauss et al., 1977; Lewis et al., 1976). In this study, three types of tests were conducted to evaluate the relationship between serum γ-GTP level and physical activity; survey on energy expenditure, a shortterm exercise test, and a 6-week exercise program.