In this research, the authors analyzed for 2, 932 elderly people in Shenyang of China to study a structure of the subjective health of elderly people. By using a covariance structural analysis method, the relation between a subjective health and three potential factors, namely, "disease or infirmity" "activities of daily living" and "human relations", has been considered in according to the advanced age and gender. In the mean time, the relation among the three potential factors has also been analyzed. The main results are as follows; 1. Goodness of Fit Index=0.913 and Adjusted GFI=0.903 were obtained. Due to the structural model of the subjective health centered on three potential factors, this model is shown to be valid. 2. The coefficients of subjective health (R-square) were 55.6% for the first half elderly male, 50.9% for the first half elderly female, 60.9% for the second half elderly male, 56.7% for the second half elderly female, so the subjective health was considered to be mainly determined by the "disease or infirmity", "activities of daily living", and "human relations". 3. For the first half elderly male, the first half elderly female, and the second half elderly female, the "disease or infirmity" had little direct influence on "human relations". However, it was shown that the indirect influence led to "activities of daily living" would be substantial. Meanwhile, among the second half elderly male, there was a close relation of the "disease or infirmity" with the "human relations. This research suggested that, for keeping a high subjective health, it is important to make efforts to improve the activities of daily living and human relations.
To investigate the motivations and psychological profiles of ultra-marathon runners using Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), 52 Japanese subjects (mean age, 45.7 years; male, 76.9%) participated in the present study. It was found that 38.5% and 23.1% of the subjects begun ultramarathons because they wanted to run a longer distance than in usual marathons, and because of the influence of others, respectively. The motivations of each subject were categorized into achievement, social, and psychological reasons. Of the 52 subjects, 73.1%, 46.2%, 32.7%, and 26.9% reported that ultra-marathon running provides a sense of achievement (psychological reason), a challenge (achievement reason), the opportunity to extend current capabilities (achievement rea son), and the opportunity to socialize with other runners and meet people (social reasons), respec tively. According to the MBTI results, INFJ and ISFJ are the two dominant personality types in ultra-marathon runners. Running experience did not differ between INFJ/ISFJ and non-IFJ sub jects, indicating that the characteristics of INFJ/ISFJ subjects are not the results of the involve ment in ultra-marathons. In conclusion, this study suggests that Japanese ultra-marathon runners tend to be more introverted, make decisions based on their feelings, and control environment in an orderly manner than the Japanese normative population.
I have evaluated the 5-year development of the Maternal and Children Health (MCH) promotion plan of municipality by quantitative analysis with comparison between the first MCH promotion plan in 1996 and the second MCH promotion plan revised in 2091 and 2002, in order to clarify problems, regarding a draw-up of the promotional plans, that need to be improved. The research ranged over 2873 municipalities for the first plan and 848 municipalities that turned in the second plan to the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, and the evaluation items were based on the concept of Health Promotion. By comparing the results of analysis for those two plans of the municipalities that revised it, the improvement was shown in almost all evaluation items, especially in the following factors. "mention of evaluation", "setting of the numerical goal for outcome", "setting of annual goal", "management of progress", "classification of tasks corresponding to the goal", and so on. Also, it was these municipalities that stated a necessity to include a public health center in the planning committee, current problems, management of progress, numerical goal of activities, and an actual survey for development of the plan, in the first MCH plan. It is evident that the methodology of designing the plan, the evaluation, and the revision based on the evaluation are significant and necessary for development of activities for public health with its plan.