The present study is based on 10-year follow-up survey of community elderly residents. The purpose of the present study is to observe changes of activities of daily living (ADL) with advancing age and to clarify physical, sociological, and psychological factors contributing to ADL changes. Subjects were 422 elderly residents living at home in Koganei City, a suburb of Tokyo. They participated in a comprehensive health survey undertaken in 1976 when they were aged 69 to 71 years. They were followed up in 1986, 10 years later . Out of the 422 elderly, 250 responded to the follow-up survey (the respondents) . One hundred and two subjects died during 10 years, and further 70 subjects did not responded because of moving out, admission to hospitals or institutions, or refusals. The results obtained are as follows: 1) Level of ADL at age 69-71 (initial survey) was likely to be lower in the deceased during 10 years than in the respondents. 2) Level of each category of ADL, i.e., walking, eating, toileting, bathing, and dressing more or less declined during 10 years, and the most remarkable decline was found in walking. 3) Bedridden status was observed in 3.7% of males and 2.1% of females at age 79-81 (follow-up survey), although all subjects were independent of ADL at initial survey. When those suffering from stroke or bone and joints diseases during the period of observation were excluded from analysis, bedridden status was 2.3% for males and 0.8% for females. 4) Decline of ADL was slightly more marked in males than in females, but it was not significant. 5) Contribution of initial factors to ADL changes due to other causes than stroke or bone and joints disease during 10 years. (1) Concerning physical factors, history of hypertension and ECG abnormalities in males, and overweight in females significantly contributed to the decline of ADL. (2) Among psychological factors, bad memory as measured by the Benton Visual Retention Test in males, and anxiety for health in females lowered ADL level. (3) For both sexes, social activity level had significantly inverse contribution to ADL decline in a graded fashion.
There is a network of Danshukai in Hida area of Gifu Prefecture. Each Danshukai consists of small number of people and acts on community care for alcoholic. We describe here course and background of accomplishment of the network, and showed its usef ullness. 1) A Danshukai consisting of large number of people had been established in 1970. However, when the number of people who continue Danshu (giving up drinking) increased, the group dynamics was altered to secondary social relation and then beginners and people who did not continue Danshu tended to leave the group. To improve the movements of Danshukai, we have established a type of Danshukai consisting of small number of beginners (referred as small group Danshukai) in 1981. According to a principle that all the attendants have primary social relation to each other, we conducted this community. Since the small group Danshukai was well received by many people, similar type of Danshukai was established one by one without much effort. 2) By using the people left from our hospital as an object, we examined relations between the small group Danshukai and Danshu. It was found that the rate of number of people who continue Danshu and the rate of number of people who belong to Danshukai significantly increased after accomplishment of the network of the small groups of Danshukai. Furthermore, the people living in the place with Danshukai were able to continue Danshu and to belong to Danshukai longer, in comparison with the people living in the place without Danshukai. 3) The main causes that the network was accomplished more easily in Hida area were discussed, regarding characteristics of mental structure in Hida people and the regional trait.
The relationship among the eruption order of the first permanent teeth, craniof acial measurements and caries of the deciduous teeth was examined, in order to investigate the factors relating to the changes in the eruption order of the first permanent teeth from the first permanent molar (M1) to the central permanent incisor (I1). Craniof acial measurement and dental observation were conducted on 462 preschool children. According to their first permanent teeth, the children were divided into two groups, the one contained the children whose first permanent tooth was mandibular Il (I-type children), and the other contained the children whose first permanent tooth was mandibular M1 (M-type children). Eighty-two boys and 67 girls were the I-type children, and 48 boys and 63 girls were the M-type children. The results of craniofacial measurement and dental caries of deciduous teeth were compared between the I-type and M-type children. Statistical analyses were performed by t-test and discriminant analysis. Results were as follows: 1) In both sexes, the mandible of the I-type children was smaller than that of the M-type children. This result suggests that the changes of the eruption order of the first permanent teeth are related to the involution of the mandible in man. 2) Dental caries were more prevailing in the M-type children. The result suggests that the increase of I-type children is related to the recently observed phenomenon of the decreasing dental caries in deciduous teeth. 3) Only in the girls, the I-type children's head-length were shorter than those of the M-type children. 4) As to physical characteristics, the I-type boys were fatter than the M-type boys, and the I-type girls were taller than the M-type girls.
In order to better understand changing public attitudes toward drugs and use of health foods, 69 pharmacists running drugstores in 2 Tokyo areas were interviewed, and the following results were obtained: 1. In recent years, they found pepole are increasing knowledgeable about drug usage and desire details information. 2. These three mistaken or rather ineffective drug using patterns were found to be common: a) to fear side-effects unnecessarily, b) to expect too much of the medicine's effectiveness, c) to rely on OTC drugs without consulting a doctor even in serious cases. 3. Recently the demand for chinese herbal medicines continues to be increasing, while comparatively the demand for health foods and dietary products has leveled off. 4. Both the users of health foods and the consumers of dietary products tend to make more mistakes in drug usage than do the users of Chinese medicines. 5. As to the current high interest in health, the interviewees pointed out two types of backgrounds among their consummers; an increasing awareness of unhealthy influences and a general increasing interest in health related issues.