Japanese Journal of Health and Human Ecology
Online ISSN : 1882-868X
Print ISSN : 0368-9395
ISSN-L : 0368-9395
Volume 20 , Issue 3-4
Showing 1-2 articles out of 2 articles from the selected issue
  • Hiroshi Sekiguchi
    1953 Volume 20 Issue 3-4 Pages 49-90,A1
    Published: 1953
    Released: November 19, 2010
    Miwa is a village of 590 houses with 3, 100 of population, located above 820 meters altitude in a mountainous part of Upper Ina District.
    About three fourths (76.2%) of the families represent farming population with averages of 0.65 acres of pad field and 0.63 acres of dry field per family. Villagers' annual income per family in 1951 was Y 234, 000, which approximately corre3ponds to 600 American dollars.. This annual income consisted of incomes from
    Farming 45.5%
    Agriculture 24.0
    Silkworm-raising 11, 2
    Stock-raising 6.7
    Others 3.6
    Forestry 26.6
    Timber 13, 5
    Firewood and charcoal 13.1
    Salary and wage 24.6
    Others 3, 3
    Relative distribution of the average annual expenditure, Y233, 000, was found as follows :
    Food 44.9%
    Clothing 12.0
    Shelter 11.9
    Business management 9.5
    Dry goods 83
    Tax 4.5
    Medical care 2.5
    Miscellaneous 6.5
    Engel coefficient was then 49.6%, whose low figure must not be interpreted that the villagers are well off, but that they are food producers. For in calculating expenditure for food. items were estimated at the local market price. Besides their food, little over 3, 000 Cal. per day per man, was found low in fat (30-41g) and animal proteln.
    Morbidity survey/ revealed 16.6% of the population were afflicted in an average month. with maxima in July (19.5%) and December (19.0%). Relative incidence of diseases showed that two thirds fell on three major groups: diseases of digestive system, infection and parasite, and respiratory system.
    Digestive system 30.1%
    Infection and parasite 20.1
    Respiratory system 16.7
    Nervous system and sense organs 12.7
    Skin and connective tissue 5.5
    Circulatory system 3.9%
    Miscellaneous 11.6
    Couples of consanguineous marriage-mostly marriage between cousins and some between remoter relations-amounted to 20.2% of the existing families.
    For a quarter of a century, annual birth-rate was recorded 28-23%, death-rate 10-14%, natural increment being 12-16% annually. Actual population of the village, however, remained fairly stationary, for the increment, about 40, was balanced by the number of people leaving the village to settle down in other places.
    Living standard of the villagers is quite low, as the annual income and expenditure show. Housing condition has remained deplorable from long past. Clothing is said to have improved recently, and has become nearly the same as in neighboring villages, although about a generation ago, it is said, one could identify the villagers of Miwa by their shabby clothes.
    With small acrage of the farming field, the villagers obviously cannot afford to raise the living standard, and there is no reserve of arable area left, hence the constancy of the population. Thus the Miwa village may be regarded as a specimen of Japanese farming villages, where population capacity is virtually saturated.
    This survey has been done under the supervision of Professor Kunizo Hukuda of University of Tokyo Medical School, to whom the author ows much in carrying out the study.
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  • A Simplification of Okuyama's Procedure
    Yoshiyuki Egami
    1953 Volume 20 Issue 3-4 Pages 91-94,A2
    Published: 1953
    Released: November 19, 2010
    A modification of Okuyama's pendulum method was suggested. Although there is some difference in the derivation of the calculation formula, the idea is the same as that of the late Dr. Okuyama.
    The author, however, simplified the device, dispensing with the metal ball, which is required in Okuyama's original procedure.
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