The protein, sugar, and lipid concentrations were measured in 255 samples of human breast milk that were provided longitudinally by 33 women following childbirth. Longitudinal changes, the relationship among the three nutrients and the amounts of infant intake were analyzed. The protein concentration was highest in colostrum and decreased thereafter. In contrast, the sugar and lipid concentrations were at their minimums in colostrum. The protein concentration exhibited a significantly positive correlation with the lipid concentration, where as both were significantly negatively correlated with the concentration of sugar. The PFC-ratios of human breast milk were almost the same as the ratios calculated from the Recommended Dietary Allowance for the Japanese (5th Division) pertaining to the first six months postpartum, the ratio of protein in human breast milk subsequently declining. It was presumed that an infant's intake of the three nutrients and the infant's energy increased in volume each day for the first five weeks postpartum.
Nowadays the proportion of the elderly living in our country rises steadily, and the changes of their socioeconomic environment and/or life-style have been largely caused by whether they live alone or live with a spouse. The quality of life is most important for these people, but previous reports concerning their health or life habits were not enough to meet social needs for this nrnhlem. Therefore, we examiend differences in life habits and health status between the female elderly who live alone and those who live with a spouse, using the questionnaire of "Life Planning Center Life Habits Inventory". The subjects numbered 66, 35 for the former group and 31 for the latter group, who live in Kumamoto city and participated in a five-hour course for health promotion. The results obtained were as follows; 1) Some differences in life habits were observed between the elderly living alone and those living with a spouse, and effects of living with a spouse was made clear by discriminant analysis. 2) Four factors were chosen by factor analysis, i.e., positiveness in daily behavior, psychosomatic condition, steadiness of daily living, and diretary pattern. These factors of the elderly's life habits are consistent with those which were reported for young or middle aged females, and thus are considered to be common among females in our country, regardless of age.
Life expectancy of woman at birth usually exceeds that of man in developed countries. The purpose of this study is to explain the reason of such sex differential in life expectancy at birth in Japan in recent years, analyzing sex differentials of age-specific death rates and mortality rates by causes of death. The calculated life table and vital statistics in 1990 were employed for the analysis. The analysis of age-specific death rate showed that the sex differential of mortality in age 50 and over explained around 70% of the sex differential in life expectancy at birth. In contrast, the sex differential of mortality rate in age 0 explained only 1 % of the difference. From the analysis of mortality rate by causes of death, it was shown that sex differentials of mortality from malignant neoplasm, heart diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, pneumonia and bronchitis, suicide, and accidents mainly contributed to the recent sex differential of life expectancy at birth. Of these causes, malignant neoplasm was the leading contributor to the sex differential in life expectancy at birth. From these results, it is considered that elongation of male life expectancy at birth would be possible by improving the life-style.
This study analyzed sex differentials in life expectancy at birth in Japan from 1920 to 1990, focusing on age structure and causes of death. Calculated life tables and vital statistics were mainly employed for the analysis. The results manifested that the sex differential in life expectancy at birth tended to increase throughout the period. Female/male ratios in life expectancy at birth had remained almost constant from 1960 to 1990 except 1975, though slight increase was observed in the recent decade. The sex differential in age-specific death rate in 0-4 year age group (particularly age 0) explained most of the sex differential in life expectancy at birth before 1947. After 1950, the age group of 60-79 played a major role in the sex differential in life expectancy at birth. It is noteworthy that female mortality exceeded male mortality in age groups of 2-41 before 1930. Consequently, excess of female mortality reduced the sex differential in life expectancy at birth at that period. As for the sex differential in mortality rates by causes of death, tuberculosis, pregnancy and childbirth related disease exerted a great influnece on decrease of the sex differential in life expectancy at birth before 1940. Recently, malignant neoplasm, heart diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, and accidents had become leading contributors to the sex differentials in life expectancy at birth.