All hypertensives (N=325)among a staff of the University of Tokyo, who had been judged by the Health Service Center to be necessary to be treated or to take care of themselves, were surveyed by mail questionnaire method. Answers of 229 hypertensives (70.5% of the target persons) were analyzed. The following results were obtained. 1) Seventy-one point eight percent of 117 hypertensives who had been judged to be necessary to be treated, visited their doctors regularly and continuously. The rest of them had some problems in their doctor visiting. 2) Sixty point four percent of 91 hypertensives who were prescribed antihypertensive drugs, complied well. This drug compliance rate seemed to be average in Japan, but left room for improvement. 3) Fifty-five point nine percent of 229 hypertensives reduced salt intake. 35.8% of them drank alcohol everyday. 33.2% of them drank alcohol heavily. 45.0% of them took physical exercise regularly. From these results, they seemed not desirably to comply with general therapeutic measures. 4) In psychological factors, persons who had stronger perceived severity of high blood pressure, stronger perceived benefit of continuous treatment, stronger normative belief (referents; their family) and stronger normative belief (referents; their surrounding people) visited their doctors more regularly and continuously. 5) Also, persons who had stronger normative belief (referents; their family) reduced salt intake more desirably.
(1) To apply the ultrasound technique to measuring the subcutaneous fat thickness in neonates. (2) To test the hypothesis that there is a relationship between the neonatal weight loss and their changes of subcutaneous fat thickness during the same period. (3) To relate the results to the maternal and neonatal data. The thickness of subcutaneous fat layer were measured in 172 infants within 24 hours of birth, on the second and the fourth day from the birth, using then pulsed ultrasound apparatus. Six sites were chosen over the right side of the body; (1) biceps (2) triceps (3) subscapular (4) suprailiac (5) upper breast (6) front thigh. The birthweight, gestational age, some anthropometric data at birth, and maternal characters were also recorded. The ultrasonic pulses were clear enough to read when measuring the subcutaneous fat thickness in the neonates. The mean of the fat thickness on the third day was significantly smaller than that of the day of birth, i.e. the first day and the fifth day, indicating the relationship with the weight loss during the four days after birth . It was obvious that fat thickenss is related with birthweight and not with gestational age. The effects of other elements on the fat thickness are now under analysis.
Regional differences of health levels in Japan have been decreasing since World War II due to the rapid economical growth. Since health phenomena are related to socio-economic factors, the decreasing trend of the regional differences of health levels are being considered. In this study, the infant mortality rate, age-adjusted death rate, and life expectancy (at age 0 year) were observed as health indexes, in order to investigate the trends of the above mentioned regional differences, using data obtained from health statistics in Japan. Coefficient of variation (C.V.) was employed to measure the regional differences. Since the test statistics for C.V. will be normally distributed, criticl significance level for null hypothesis test was calculated as an exact probability based on the Hastings' approximation. From the results, the coefficient of variation for the infant mortality rate was 17.93% as in 1950, and in 1984, this coefficient became 10.96% (critical significance level P=0.0024). The age-adjusted death rate for males in 1960 was 7.40%, and 6.02% for females. In 1980, the values decreased until 5.87% (critical significan e level P=0.0616) and 5.07% (critical significance level P=0.1241) respectively. The life expectancy in 1950 was 2.70% for males and 3.28% for females, and in 1980 0.94% and 0.75% respectively. Very small values of significance level were observed. Therefore, it can be concluded that the regional differences of health level in Japan have been decreasing significantly.