Health level in Shita-machi area of Tokyo was studied by using aggregate data concerning death and disease. Indicators concerning residential environment and socioeconomic condition were also analyzed for conjecture of area situation about health supporting environment and personal skill level . The Shita-machi area is relatively low in health indicators employed in the present study in comparison with Yamanote and Musashino area, and area of Chiba Prefecture near the Shita-machi area. It was also pointed out that health level of the Shita-machi area was below the average level of the whole country whereas socioeconomic levels were higher in the Shita-machi area compared to the average level of the whole country .
The helth promotion policy in Japan was based on 3 key health determinants: nutrition, exercise, and adequate rest. In this policy, health promotion concentrates on the physical aspects only. However, the WHO charter stresses the importance of social and mental determinants as well. In an attempt to determine awareness of people towards health determinants, we surveyed adult women using a simple questionnaire, asking "How do you take care of your health?" and "Please list your answers in your own words in order of recall ." In 1995, the questionnaire was given to 100 randomly selected adult women, aged 25-39, and 73 women responded, mentioning 3.7 items per person on average. In all 273 items that were mentioned, 46 independent or mutually nonoverlapped items were identified . Three key determinants occupied 74.0% of the total. This may indicate that these 3 were already adopted to all the people of Japan for their health care. All the responded items were classified into 8 health determinants: nutrition, exercise, adequate rest, psycho-social action, hygienic action, reqular daily activitiy, physiological demand, and health education. The frequency rate of the items in psycho-social action accounted for 14%, though they were not involved in official public health recommendations. The above results may help to stress the importance of public organizations to instigate a psycho-social health promotion policy to increase public awareness in Japan.
Children's body density has been reported to differ from that of adults mainly due to the chemical immaturation of fat-free mass. The present study was conducted to fully examine the body density of Japanese children (268 males and 332 females) from 10 years of age (4th grade in primary school) to 18 years of age (3rd grade in high school) in Nagasaki Prefecture, who were categorized by one-year age interval. Their body density was measured by an underwater weighing method to provide the basic date for estimation of body composition. The following results were obtained: 1. The subjects were taller than the national average at younger ages in both boys (11 years) and girls (10 and 11 years), though no difference was observed in other age groups. 2. The body densities in boys showed proportional relationship with age, whereas those in girlts tended to decrease with age. 3. Combining the results of the present study and other reports for Japanese and foreign subjects, body densities in boys increased in a linear fashion with aging and those in girls showed a slight decrement with aging. These tendencies were well explained by increment of fat mass in girls and increment of fat-free mass in boys. 4. A review of literature demonstrated that the equations used in estimation of body composition from density in children and adolescents should differ from those in adults. It is thus suggested that new equations specific to these age groups should be formulated.
A survey on all patients with intractable diseases was conducted in a local administrative region (municipal region) for the purpose of understanding what percentage of patients receiving financial aid for treatment with intractable diseases was covered under the financial aid for treatment for intractable diseases and for gathering information on the actual medical situation of the beneficiaries of this system. The results of this survey are summarized as follows; 1) The medical costs of 66.5% of the 209 patients were covered under the medical assistance system for intractable diseases (Beneficiary Group), while the medical costs of the remaining 33.5% of the patients were not (Non-beneficiary Group). 2) As a result of the assessment of characteristics of both the Beneficiary Group and Non-beneficiary Group, there were differences between the groups with regard to health problems, needs for public health service, medical care or welfare. The patients in the Beneficiary Group were likely to be affected by shorter period of diseases and more than half of them could lead maintain almost normal lives. The patients in the Non-beneficiary Group were likely to be affected by the diseases for a longer period and more than half of them required daily assistance by other people or mechanical ventilation and had needs for public health service, medical care or welfare. 3) Today, the number of patients with intractable diseases is grasped only through applications for various medical assistance systems by administrative institution. The results of this survey suggest that the collection of such information by one administrative institution is possible for only two-thirds of the patients with intractable diseases. These results suggest that cooperation among public health service institutions, medical institutions and welfare institutions is essential for tracking down the non-beneficiaries of the medical assistance system for intractable diseases, which is requried for the collection of accurate information on patients with intractable diseases.
In order to create a database for developing an appropriate health policy for aged people in Korea, particularly for those living in rural farming communities, the present study compared health status and disease pattern among aged Koreans residing in Korean farming villages and the descendants of Koreans who migrated to China more than one hundred years age. The subjects in this study were 467 Koreans in 10 Korean farming villages northeast of Seoul and 223 Korean migrants in 2 villages in the Korean Autonomous Region in northeast China. All of them were 60 years old or over in age . The same investigation team interviewed the subjects of both groups in July 1995. In addition, clinical examination was conducted in order to determine the prevalence of three diseases: diabetes mellitus, hypertension and anemia. The results were compared between the two groups . The interview survey revealed that the prevalence of the disorders during the 2 weeks prior to the investigation was higher among both male and female subjects of Korean migrants. A comparison of the disease pattern showed higher incidences of cancer, accidental injuries and poisoning due to agricultural chemicals among Koreans of rural farming villages, whereas cerebrovascular disorders and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases were more common among Korean migrants . Clinical examination demonstrated a higher prevalences of diabetes among villagers in Korea whereas the prevalences of hypertension and anemia were higher among Korean migrants. In rural Korea, the diseases related to life style, were not common. On the other hand, diseases such as hypertension and anemia, which were related to malnutrition, low income, and bad hygiene, were still prevalent among Korean migrants but rarely occur among Korean villagers.