The total amount of food intakes dividing into seventeen different food elements was surveyed for the group of junior college female students aging among 19 and 20 for the first period between 1984 and 1986, and the second period between 1989 and 1991 subsequently . An additional detection of physical status for these subjects has been performed in 1989. Furthermore, from the correlation matrix of the National Nutritional Survey in 1985, the calculation of factor scores from the factor analysis with principal component techniques, the following results are obtained. 1) Approximately 15% decrease of levels of mean total daily foods consumption from those in the first period is observed. Simultaneously, the number of students whose total daily consumption in less than 1000 grams is increased from 30% to 50/60% after five year period. 2) All the mean total daily consumption of foods except wheat is decreased after five year period. The number of students who have fewer than 50 gram intake of colored vegetables is increased respectively from 22-34% to 48-61% in the first and from 19-22% to 32-36% in the latter. 3) Through the result of correlation factor scores, more westernized dietary habit with less side dishes is confirmed in the latter period. 4) It is likely found the total amount of intakes was less than 1000 grams in the majority of student groups with the negatively deviated first factor score . Furthermore, fruits, colored vegetables and meats are less taken in those groups. 5) The leaning tendency is observed in the group with negatively deviated first factor scores associated with an iron-deficiency anemia occasionally.
The influences of physical and behavioral characteristics on the results of health examinations were examined in 761 males and females (aged 41, 46, 51, 56, 61 and 66 years) in a rural town of Hida district, Gif u Prefecture, Japan. In both sexes, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and blood sugar and lactate dehydrogenase levels increased with age. Serum triglyceride and blood hemoglobin levels decreased with age in males, whereas hemoglobin, serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, aspartate aminotransferase, y-glutamyl transpeptidase, alkaline phosphatase and uric acid levels increased with age in females. The influence of daily life habits on the results of health examinations was examined by stepwise regression analysis. Body mass index, intake of sugar, frequency of drinking alcohol, daily amount of alcohol intake, and the duration of cigarette smoking were related with the results of health examinations. Levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and y-glutamyl transpeptidase in males were higher than those of the National Nutrition Survey; we thought these were due to higher proportions of subjects with hard activity and heavy alcohol consumers in this district. In females, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, systolic blood pressure and total cholesterol levels showed a strong association with age. Based on these characteristics, it may be possible to estimate the corresponding physical ages. From these results, we conclude that some results of health examinations such as blood pressure, mean cell volume and y-glutamyl transpeptidase levels could be used as appropriate indices of daily life habits.
Using American (Caucasian) and Japanese males, the present study revealed the difference in fat and muscle thickness between them and observed the change in body composition that occur with aging by using B-mode ultrasound measurements. Age of, 153 Japanese males and 107 American males were aged from 20 to 59 years old. Analysis of covarance was applied taking into consideration the influence of height, age, and race. 1. In American males had significantly greater body height and weight than Japanese males. However the WHR (Waist/Hip Ratio) in both groups was found to increase with aging and no significant difference was observed between the two groups in this respect. 2. A striking increase with aging was observed in subcutaneous fat thickness of the trunk in American males, but not in Japanese males. As an increase in WHR was observed with aging in Japanese males it is though possible that fat is accumutated much in the abdominal cavity. 3. Muscle thickness in American males was thicker than that of Japanese males at all sites with a particularly striking difference in the upper arm. A significant decrease in muscle thickness was observed with aging in the chest, abdomen, anterior thigh and posterior calf sites.
To evaluate the factors relating to traffic accidents resulting in injury or death of drivers, questionnaire survey was performed on seat belt use in 136 official workers (101 males and 35 females) driving cars. In data analyses, multiple logistic regression analysis was applied and the factors relating to seat belt use were detected. The results obtained were as follows. 1. The percentage of males using seat belt at any time was 82.6% . This value decreased to 68.6% in females, but the difference was not significant. 2. Seat belt unuse was significantly related to Body Mass Index (Odds ratio 0.52), nights of drive per week (Odds ratio 4.29) and experiences of traffic accidents resulting in injury or death (Odds ratio 109.29) and resulting in property dameges (Odds ratio 14.15).