Since World War II, mortality rate in most Asian countries has declined in association with change in age-specific mortality patterns and extension of life expectancy, owing to social development and improvements in medical services and nutritional status. To classify life table mortality patterns and to examine their changes for the 16 selected Asian countries, we applied the age-specific mortality or survival rates to the Heligman-Pollard Model, which is a parameterized model, and the Ewbank Model, which is a relational model. Furthermore, the results were compared with the United Nations and Coale-Demeny model life tables. The age-specific mortality rates in most of the countries studied showed sharp decline initially in the younger ages and then in all ages; recently, the further decline has been observed in the middle and old age groups. The model life table-basedclassification revealed that most countries followed the West or Far East model pattern, indicating that they have considerably developed. However, some countries such as Bangladesh and India were classified as the South Asian model pattern, which reflects less improvement in mortality rate. In Japan, mortality rates in the middle and old age groups have markedly decreased, representing a shift from the West to the North model pattern.
Based on questionnaire survey for 968 subjects, consisting of young (high school students), adult (25-64 years old) and elderly (65 years or over) groups, in three areas of Okinawa Prefecture, this paper elucidated what conditions are perceived to contribute to well-being in old aged persons, paying special attention to the differences by age, gender and residential area. The major findings were as follows. 1. Among all subjects pooled, housing and residential condition, which enables the elderly to live safely, and improvement and maintenance of physical fitness were perceived as significant factors for well-being for the aged persons, but calm living condition without bothering human relations and autonomous lifestyle of married couules were not. 2. By age groups, the adult and elderly groups particularly recognized significance of improvement and maintenance of physical fitness while the young group that of housing and residential condition. 3. Males tended to perceive improvement and maintenance of physical fitness as the important factors and females did housing and residential condition. 4. The residents of Ogimi village (thinly populated, agricultural area) and Irabu town (isolated, agricultural and fishing area) perceived living environments as the important factors while those of Urasoe city did improvement and maintenance of physical fitness.
Using the Todai Health Index (THI) questionnaire, which provides 12 scales and three discriminant factors, this study clarified psychophysiological conditions of 364students of a women's college in Nagano City, consisting of 212 commuters from home (called commuters) and 152 others (non-commuters), and those of their mothers and fathers. The 12 scales in THI are: subjetive symptoms (SUSY), respiratory organs (RESP), eye and skin (EYSK), mouth and anus (MOUT), digestive organs (DIGE), impulsiveness (IMPU), lie scale (LISC), mental instability (MENT), depression (DEPR), aggressiveness (AGGR), nervousness (NERV), and irregularity of life (LIFE), and the three discriminant factors are: psychosomatic organs (PSD), neurosis (NEURO), and schizophrenia (SHIZO).The major results were as follows: 1 . In the analysis for all subjects pooled, the positive correlation between the students and their fathers was observed for NERV only while that between the students and their mothers was found for RESP, EYSK, MOUT, IMPU, LISC, DEPR and SCHIZO. 2. When the subjects were broken down by the student's commuting pattern, the positive correlation between the students and their mothers was found in SUSY, RESP, DIGE, IMPU, LISC and SCHIZO for the commuters' group but none in the non-commuters' group; no correlation was found between the students and their fathers in both groups. These results suggest that the parent-child association in psychophysiologicalconditions is determined by the environmental factors such as the extents of contactbetween the daughter and her mother or father and the residential pattern rather thanthe genetic factors.