A sociomedical investigation was performed for the 2, 082 senile people aged over sixty of which one group was residing with family at large city area numbering 1, 337 (A group) and other group was accommodated in 16 Asylums out of total 43 throughout country numbering 745 (B group). Following conclusion was obtained .1. Marriage and number of children : 1) The age of marriage was 20.8 years of men, 17.8 years of women in A group; 20.1 of men, 16.9 of women in B group. 2) The spouse status showed bereavement 46.9%, spouse 41.8%, remarriage 2.7%, divorce 1.5% in A group; bereavement 69.3%, divorce 7.8%, spouses 4.2%, remarriage 3.0/ in B group, accordingly higher rate of non-spousing in B group. 3) Total number of children delivered was 5.3 in A group, 1.9 in B group and number of present children living was 4.1 in A group, 0.6 in B group.2. Living expense maintenance 1) As to the residing group at large city area, old person livable by their own income including wife supported by the husband's income were 38.7%, which consisted 16.8% of property income, 15.9% of own working and 2.4% of pension, and those of no income were 61.3%, of which the cases depended on their posterity were 57.7% and those depended on the relief assistance were 2.0%. Sex difference of their income living showed 56.1% in men and 27.0% in women which expressed more vitality in men. 2) As to the accommodated group at asylum in specific area, the motive of accommodation ranked 34.1 % of no family, 34.1 % of own request and 10.5% of no satisfactory family relationship, and cases of having posterity were 35.1 % and that of having relative 47.7%; and as for the communication, 18.1% of subject having posterity and 23.6% of that having relative and visiting from them ; and communication and interview frequency was 1-4 times at most ; and impression to asylums showed 80.4% of favorable and 4.0% of undesirable.3. Family composition and resident status of family group : Family size was 5.8 and the generation composition was 50.3% of three generations, 40.8% of two and 6.4% of one generation showing large and small family size. The subject lived with posterity rated 32.9% with son only, 5.6% with daughter only, and 2.8% of no inmate. Frequency of posterity visiting from apart-living showed over once a month rating 42.2%, several times a year 20.3% and no visiting 4.5%, and in case of subject visiting, over once a month 22.9%. several times 22.0% and no visiting 8.1%.4. Health status: Comparison of health status between risiding group with family (A) and accommodated group at asylum (B) was attempted as follows. 1) Vision : "no trouble" 51.3%, "hardly see" 38.4%, "can notsee" 6.5% in A group and 37.9%, 40.3%, 13.7%, respectively in B group. Audition; "no trouble" 65.0%, "hardly hear" 21.3% in A group and 53.4%, 34.4% respectively in B group, showing better vision and audition in A group. 2) Sleeping hour was 8.2 in A group and 8.0 hours in B group . 3) Age of menarche was 17.0 and menopause 48.2 in A group and 16. 8, 47.5 respectively in Bgroup. 4) Daily living custom showed : a) Tooth-brushing; "everday" 82.0%, "occasionally" 12.0%, "never" 3.4% in A group and 50.6%, 26.4%, 11.9% respectively in B group representing worse condition of B group. b) Smoking ; "not smoke" 43.0%, "smoke" 35.0%, "smoke if available" 13.2% in A group and 43.1%, 29.1%, 24.6% respectively in B group containing more smokers in A and more readiness in B group. c) Drinking, "not drink" 51.3%, "drink if available" 25.3%, "drink" 13.8% in A group and 49.8%, 27.7/, 18.1% respectively in B group showing half population of not drinking in both group.5. Hope and desire : The desirable subjects of residing group with family for the society and nation were as follows. 1) Subject dsired occupation was 34.8% out of total and the raeson was 15.4% for living maintenance. 19.4% for health and 64.4% of no response.
In an effort to assess the health status for the senile people in Korea, a survey was conducted in 1975 using Cornell Medical Index health inquiry schedule towards the aged people over sixty of age. Those who were interviewed were divided into two groups one residing "with family" in Seoul numbering 734 (hereafter A group) and the other accommodated "at asylum" num bering 387 (hereafter B group). The findings from the survey led the author to the following conclusions. The age specific differential in the average complaint rate for the inquiry of a total of 195 items (154 physical items and 41 mental items) could not be recognized. However, a substantial difference could be observed between the two groups. That is, the average complaint rate of B group was consistently low as compared with A group in both sexes. The average number of physical complaints was seen among the "with family" group (A) with 32.2-40.8 for males and 37.9-46.9 for females whereas those "at Asylum" (B) were computed at 27.9-33.6 and 30.5-42.1 respectively for males and females. This implies that health status of B group was in better condition than that of A group, and such tendency was particularly more outstanding in mental health. The average number of mental physical complaints by the "with family" group (A) was computed at 12.7-15.1 for males and 14.3-20.8 for females whereas those by the "at Asylum" group (B) were computed at 7.2-10.0 and 8.0-14.4 respectively for the corresponding sexes. Therefore, it could be said that the aged people accommodated at asylum were enjoying more mental stability than those, residing with their families, so for as health index isconcerned. In the cotext of none-complaint rate (which means favorable health status), the age specific difference could not be detected while the group difference was apparently noted as of 25-37 per cent in B group and 13-22 per cent in A group. Furthermore, those who filed less than 20 complaints out of a total of 195 items of inquiry (a relatively favorable health status) constituted 16-25 per cent in B group and 5-13 per cent in A group. This also implies a better health status among the B group. By and large, the number of physical and mental complaints filed by the respondents failed to show any significant difference by the levels of educational background. However, the larger number of complaints particularly the mental complaints have been reported by A group as compared with that of B group regardless of their educational levels. It was also observed that in general the rate of filing complaints was not affected much by their formerly engaged occupations.
To through light on the health problems of the fishing in the Ariake Sea and Shiranuhi Sea, we have studied on the hourly working life pattern of fishers and their families, the intensity of each works and the labour conditions of these fishing. According to the type of fishing method, the number of times of fishing and the catches of fishing, the irregularity of the structures of each hourly working life pattern and the special feature of energy expenditure were observed. The relative metabolic rates of each works were estimated to be relatively low, i.e., under 3.0 in most cases, but the R. M. R of the works such as the landing the net (net fishing) and the carrying the fish cases were to be over 4.0 and more. The working times per day were relatively long. Then the total values of energy expenditure of working times were calculated to be 1.000 to 3000 kcal. (the working times were 260 to 900min). Accordingly, the daily energy consumption were estimated relatively high, i.e., 2800 to 3800 kcal. for men. Regarding on the working environment, the cold exposure of the fishing boat in the winter season, the noise of the diesel engine and the vibration of the boat were also worth noticing for the environmental health point of views.
Japanese deaths of 1970 were investigated to divided into seven largest cities, other cities and rural distrits, and the characteristic of deaths in the rural districts were analyzed. The excessive death in rural districts were 19, 423 compaired with seven largest cities. From death number, cerebrovascular disease and accidents were the most, and malignant neoplasm and ischaemic heart disease were the lowest. From the standardized motality ratio by selected causation, accidents, gastro-enteritis and chronic disease of endocardium in rural districts were more than 7 largest cities. We believe that the deaths of cerebrovascular disease and accidents shall decrease by strenghening the guidance of food life and the safety education, and propeling strongly the construction of roads in the rural districts.
On 726 female patients (523 cases of the pregnants and others 203 cases) who came to a hospital of obstetrics and gynecology in Tokyo, detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) it the vagina was performed and an examination on its various characteriftics revealed the following results. 1. Among 726 cases, E. coli were Identified in 98 cases, 13.4%. 2. The rate of detecting E. coli was 10.3% in the pregnant group and 21.6/ in the patient group. When classified by regions on all patients, 11.8% at the external genitalia, 5.2/ at the posterior vault of the vagina, and 4.4% were detected at both regions at the same time. 3. As regards the relation between the detecting E. coli and period of pregnancy, detecting rate was high at the early stage and post delivery. 4. The value of pH in the vagina was 4.7ln average in the pregnants, and among them 4.9 in average E. coli positive cases, It was 5.3 in average in the patients, and 5.4 in average in the E. coli positive cases. 5. When the rate of decting E. coli is classified by the disease, it was relatively high in simple vaginitis, symptomless, erosion of the uterine neck, irregular hemorrhage, leukorrhea and so on. 6. Examining E. coil relatively often detected by O-type serum classification, on E. coil in the genital organ, type O-8 was most abundant and followed by in order of O-7, O-23, O-1, O-16, O-2, O-17. In E. coil in the feces, type O-7 is most abundant, followed by in order of O-8, O-16, O-2, O-17. 7. The cases in which E. coil in the genital organs and in the feces coincided in serological classification were 37.7%, 31.5% in the pregnat group and 45.5% in the patient group. 8. As for the degree of sanitary distribution, in the pregrant group, the sanitary degree I° was 12.9%, II° 55.5% and III° 31.4%, and in the patient group, I° was 13.6%, II° 36.3%, and III° 50%. And in general, the lower the sanitary degree, the higher the rate of detecting E. coli.