Changing health behavior is most important among the various objectives of health education practices. In this connection, the "Health Belief Model" which was developed due to the findings of a series of studies on health education in the past two decades in the U.S. is presented by the authors from a historical point of view that (1) the role of health belief in changing health behavior was first and dramatically shown by Hochbaum, (2) his findings were supported by two experiments by Kegeles, and Haef ner and Kirscht, and (3) the Model was developed by Becker et al. based upon these foregoing findings. A few comments on the Model are mentioned by the authors. (1) Because the objects of most studies on health beliefs were on rather simple health behavior such as participating in a screening program and getting vaccinated against communicablediseases, the authors are interested in how the Model could be applied to more complicated and habitual health behavior such as in the case of the diabetic patient who is to take everyday the diet and exercise prescribed by his physician. (2) One more variable would be added to the Model in order to explain motives (providing energy) for health behaviors.
The sex ratio at an early embryonic stage was investigated in 1100 cases of induced abortions terminated within 12 weeks of gestation. By means of the cytogenetic analysis of the chorionic villi, the sex ratio was determined as 107.5 (570 males/530 females), which did not seem to be different greatly from the ratio at birth. Since a slight excess of male conceptuses was already evident at this stage, it was suggested that main contributing factors affecting the male dominant sex ratio might be present at an earlier embryonic stage, namely the preimplantation, rather than later stages towards birth.
This experimental investigation was to seek a possible approach for understanding the changes of prenatal sex ratio. By making use of female mice, the sex ratios of embryos were established as 98. 3, 109.5 and 111.7 on 3. 5, 10.5 and 18.5 days of gestation, respectively. There were no significant differences among these ratios. No deviations from the 1:1 theoretical ratios were also observed except for the ratio at perinatal stage. But, it was found that a slight excess of male embryos was consistently evident after the mid-term of gestation. From the findings of reproductive performances at each gestational stage, it was suggested that the selective mortality at implantation might play an important role on the change of the prenatal sex ratio in mice. From an epidemiological point of view, the use of an animal model is a relevant tool, so far as we comprehend the differential characteristics between man and other mammals.
In this papes, administrative orpanization for public health, tuberculosis control and prevention of venereal disease, which had been involved in the problems of public health in the early years of the Showa Era, were discribed. 1. In those days, public health administration had been centrlized to the Health Bureau and Social Bureau of the Ministry of Home Affairs, and they gave their instructions to the Public Health Section of the Prefectural Police Department. Countermeasures for the chronic infectious diseases were the most imoprtant problems at that time. 2. The mortality from tuberculosis in Japan was two or three times higher than that of Western countris, and there were poor and insufficient preventive facilites in all over the country. It was epock making in 1932 that the Health Guidance Clinic were established in every prefectures in order to prevent against tuberculosis by the subsides offered from NHK (Nihon Hoso Kyokai), but not by the national budget. 3. Licenced and unlicened prostitute, geisha, waitress and barmaid had been the major contagion source of venreal disease. Legal inspection system for the syphilis was forcibly applied only to the licenced prostitutes, but the others took the medical check only when they were arrested. Since 1928, when the original Venereal Disease Prevention Law enforced, all prostitures, streetwalkers, geishas, barmaids and waitresses have forcibly taken medical check for the venereal disease.
In this paper, trachoma and blindness, leprosy, and parasitosis, which had been involved in the problems of public health in the early years of the Showa Era, were described. 1. Morbidity rate of trachoma in the beginning of Showa declined as compared with that in the Meiji and Taisho Era. There may be main factors of the declination of morbidity rate that emphasis was laid on the trachoma in physical examination for school children and conscriptee, that preventive measure against trachoma required small expense and that the mass examination for trachoma was simple and easy. Blindness was closely related with trachoma. 2. The goverment organization of the National Leprosarium was proclaimed in 1927 and Leprosy Prevention Law was widely revised in 1931. Since then prevention of leprosy have been made it a principle to isolate the patients in the National Leprosarium. 3. It appeared obvious in the beginning of the Showa Era that higher morbidity rate of parasitosis was 40%-60% in urban and 70%-80% in rural area. Parasitosis Prevention Law was proclaimed in 1931. However, the morbidity rate showed no decreasing tendency. Major countermeasures against parasitosis in those days were the stool examination for paraites, administration of anthelminthic, and popularization of new type of lavatory improved by the Ministry of Home Affaires.
F. Yanagisawa and Y. Shimizu showed that there is a close inverse correlation with a correlation coefficient of -0.899 (1965) between the crude death rate and the birth rate in the economic zones of Japan set forth by the Japanese Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. We have recently made a study of how the correlation alters in the administrative zones, is, prefectures of Japan. The correlation coeffieients between the crude death rate and the birth rate during the period of from 1892 till 1975 showed normal correlations up to and including 1950, but changed into negative correlations from about 1959 on. It is that the correlation coefficients between the crude death rate and the birth rate in Japan changed into an negative correlation at about the time when Japanese economy got into the high growth age. Especially, the correlatin coefficients between the two parameters from 1964 on showed such a high negative correlation as -0.8. Detailed analysis of the available data is necessry for interpreting the sgnificance of this phenomenon, but at present stage of study, the difference in the agewise stratified population structure between the prefectures may be considered responsible for it. If the correlation not between the crude death rate and the birth rate but between the standardized death rate and the birth rate in 1970 is estimated, the coefficient still indicates an negative correlation, but the correlation coefficient is as low as -0.425. In ther words, it is demonstrated that the agewise stratified structure of population plays an important role in this phenomenon. However, if it is considered that the district where there is a large dependent population is agricultural prefectures, it may be considered that the neonatal death, rate in the district is high. The problem relating to the fact that chronological alterations in the correlation coefficient between the crude death rate and the birth rate have in recent years shown negative correlations, rebuire the analysis of factors responsible for this phenomenon by means of analyzing alterations the agewise stratified population structures in the prefectures, the difference in health problems between the prefectures and the status of widespread acceptance of conception control.