Japanese Journal of Health and Human Ecology
Online ISSN : 1882-868X
Print ISSN : 0368-9395
ISSN-L : 0368-9395
Volume 26 , Issue 1
Showing 1-12 articles out of 12 articles from the selected issue
  • Tuneari SUGAHARA
    1960 Volume 26 Issue 1 Pages 1-14,A1
    Published: 1960
    Released: November 19, 2010
    Cerebral apoplexy death problems in recent Iwate Prefecture has been statistically studied using the statistics of the Prefecture of 1951 to 1957. Calculating the auto-correlation coefficient according to G.U. Yule (1926) and making correlograms of each districts of the Prefectures the following results have been obtained:
    1) Death due to cerebral apoplexy was noted to have a typical definite connection with the seasons regardless of age. With an annual periodical cycle, the number of death due to cerebral apoplexy increases in the winter season while decreasing in the summer season. This typical periodical seasonal change in the number of death of apoplexy was noted to be conspicuous after 50, particularly after 60 years of age.
    2) This seasonal change in the apoplexy death number was noted to be varied somewhat with the districts: Morioka, Kamaishi, Hanamaki, Ichinoseki, and Daito, which are divided according to the existance of the health center, are the districts with an apparant typical seasonal change in the death number, while destricts of Iwate, Kuji, Iwaizumi, TOno show no noticeable seasonal change in the same.
    3) Corrected death rate of cerebral apoplexy in each of the health center districts made known that there are an apparant difference among the districts, being, as a rule, higher in the inland plains and lower in the coast districts. There is a trend that the greater the proportion of aged people after 65 years of age among the apoplexy dead people is, the lowler is the corrected death rate of apoplexy. Concerning the relationship between the ratio of aged people in the number of apoplexy death and the corrected death rate of apoplexy, there are noticeable differences in the relationship among the following three districts: the inland plains, the coast districts, and the districts between the mountains of the Kitakami mountain system, however, there is still a district accumulation character. These trends are also noted to exist in other prefectures throughout Japan.
    4) Atmospheric pressure and temperature were the two factors of the weather picked out to might have some connection with the death of apoplexy. With both the multiple and partial correlation method, statistically studying the relationship between these two atmospheric factors and the death rate of apoplexy, it was found that temperature had more influence on the death rate of apoplexy than the pressure.
    Download PDF (2064K)
    1960 Volume 26 Issue 1 Pages 15-37,A2
    Published: 1960
    Released: November 19, 2010
    From the prevention hygiene point of view, I inquired statistically into the death by tuberculosis, disease of circulatory system and 'of infants, and made mass-and epideminological survey on the present condition of infant health control and disease of circulatory system how to move, and the true condition of tuberculosis in Okazaki District. The results were as follow:
    1. In comparison with all Japan and Aichi Prefectnre, all rates show on the whole the same rate and incline to diminution.
    2. Concerning the substance of tuberculosis in Okazaki District, morbidity and finding rate coincide with the result of all Japan tuberculosis investigation.
    Concerving regist rated patients whose procession of disease was obsqure, it's 73.5% cured and it's 52.4% is under the chemotherapy.
    3. Concerning health care of infants, the physique has rised year and year.
    4. Concerning mass survey, in the rate which was attached by high blood pressure, man is 22.6%, woman is 22.7%, it was comparatively low rate. In the mean number of maximum blood pressure, man is rather lower than that of all Japan.
    Woman is plainly higher than it. In the rate which was found out the change in E.C.G., man is 24.0%, woman is 18.2%.
    Compared with the occupation, high blood pressure is higher rate in those who carry on agriculture, commerce and industry, the change of E.C.G. is higher rate in office man.
    The relation between high blood pressure and the family history, early history and the custom of drink was statistically singnificant.
    Download PDF (4130K)
  • Satoshi SHIMIZU
    1960 Volume 26 Issue 1 Pages 38-47,A2
    Published: 1960
    Released: November 19, 2010
    The research was made for the 1, 663 Shigella strains, which were prevailing in 1958, to grasp the state of resistivity of those strains against antibiotics. The degrees of resistibility against Chloramphenicol, Streptomycin and Tetracycline were examined for that purpose.
    The finding are as follows:
    (1) The distribution of bacterial types:
    No remarkable difference in the distribution is found between the patients and the carriers. The main types of bacteria are Shigella flexner 2a, Shigella sonnei, Shigella flexner 3a, Shigella flexner 2b and Shigella flexner 1b.
    (2) The resistibility against eacn antibiotics:
    As has been reported so far, the degree of the resistibility of Shigella sonnei is lower than that of Shigella flexner. There is little difference in the resistibility between the patients and the carriers.
    (3) The frequency of appearance of the resistant strains:
    Little difference in the frequency of appearance of shigella flexner is found between the patients and the carriers, but that of Shigella sonnei shows the high rate only for the patients. Observing the frequency by age, those for the 0-9 and 20-49 age groups show the high rates. Observing it by the group of the patients or the carriers, only that for the group of the 0-9 years old patients shows the high rate.
    (4) Examination of the resistant strains:
    Examining the resistant strains by the group of the patients or the carriers, both groups have many of the resistant strains against three antibiotics-Chloramphenicol, Streptomycin and Tetracycline. It is noted, however, that particularly the patients have many of the same, while the carriers havitng the resistant strains against one antibiotics, Streptomycin, amount to 30 per cent of them.
    (5) Peculiarity of Shigella sonnei:
    Comparing Shigella sonnei with other types of bacteria, the degree of resistibility of the former is lower than the latters, but the frequency of appearance of the resistant strains to the former shows the highest rate of all, and such trend is remakable only for the patients and not for the carriers. Those findings are noticed as well as the fact that Shigella sonnei is recently increasing year by year.
    (6) Consideration on the mechanism of resistivity forming:
    There are many, at present, who support the salutation theory for the explanation of the mechanism. However, it is difficult to explain the whole only by that theory. Accordingly. the medium resistant strains were taken up to examine about the adaptation theory, and it was tried to make clear the difficult points from that angle.
    As the results, the followings were found:
    The frequency of appearance of the medium resistant strains decreases or increases almost in parallel with that of the resistant strains. The bacterial types were divided into three groups having resistivity, medium resistivity and resistibility each, and the frequencies of appearance of the resistant strains against the said three antibiotics were examined for each group. Comparing that against one of three antibiotics with those against the other two antibiotics each other, it was found that the frequencies of appearance for those groups were high in the order of one with resistivity, with medium resistivity and with resistibility. It suggests that the group with medium resistivity exists as a process to the group with resistivity. Thus, the main part of the mechanism of resistivity forming can be explained by the salutation theory, but the adaptation theory can not be disregarded.
    Download PDF (2182K)
  • Report 4. Concerning the Development of the Secondary Sexual Characteristics
    Kiyoko CHIBA
    1960 Volume 26 Issue 1 Pages 48-55,A4
    Published: 1960
    Released: November 19, 2010
    The purpose of this research is to study: (1) whether there are any special characteristics in bodily development which typify the menarche, (2) whether there are an differences in body type between girls who reach the menarche early and those who reach it late, and (3) whether, corresponding to the gradual acceleration of the age when the menarche occurs, there is a corresponding acceleration of the development of the mammary shape and axillary hair.
    The sudjects of the study were 980 girls from an urban elementary, middle, and high school.
    The mammary shape development scale follows Reynold's classification, and the axillary hair scale follows Tsuji's classification.
    The results are as follows:
    1) There are no special characteristics in bodily development which typify the menarche, but the menarche coincides with the period of greatest individual growth in height. This fact is corroborated by many writers.
    2) Girls who reach the menarche early (accelerated girls) show an optimum correlation between height and weight during their growth (Types A, B, and C). By contrast, girls who reach the menarche late (retarded girls) tend to be tall and thin and to show a poor correlation between height and weight during their growth (Type E).
    3) Accelerated girls reached the bud stage of mammary shape development at eight years of age. The change from an elevated areola to she first swelling of the mammary shape, and again to a small mound formation, occurs between ten and twelve years of age.
    Nearly all the subjects reached a mature stage of mammary shape development at seventeen years of age.
    4) The appearance of axillary hair in accelerated girls occurs at ten years of age, about two years later than the beginning of mammary shape development.
    5) As compared with the results of a 1937 study concerning the beginning and the rate of development of mammary shape and axillary hair, the results of this study (1957) show: (i) similar conclusions as regards the beginning of mammary shape and axillary hair growth, but (ii) as regards the rate of development, there is an acceleration of one or two years.
    Download PDF (1784K)
  • Koichi YAMADA
    1960 Volume 26 Issue 1 Pages 56-67,A5
    Published: 1960
    Released: November 19, 2010
    The writer made a biometric investigation from the constitutional-anthropological point of view, measuring bodies, limbs, heads and faces, for the 515 adult inhabitants of Takachiho-machi, Usuki-gun, Miyazaki-ken, in January, 1957. The followings are the findings from the examination of the measures and indices and the comparative analysis with those of the inhabitants of other districts covering twenty-five items.
    1. The average height of the inhabitants of Takachiho district is 159.74cm, which belongs to the “ short ” height group according to the Martin's classification and to the “ short medium ” height group for the Japanese adults.
    2. The cephalic index is 82.41, 61.1% of them belong to the brachycephalic type.
    3. The zygomatic arch width-mandibular angle width index is 77.60. Over half of them belong to the medium type.
    The synthetical comparison by the average type index showed that they had the closest tribal affinity to the inhabitants of Aira district, then Murayama basin region, Hida and Northern Shinshu districts, and Tsushima island followed it, and they had the slight affinity to Ainos in Hokkaido, and the inhabitants of Ecchu, Sagami and Hitachi districts and Koga mountanius region. The comparisons by the index correlogram and other methods also revealed the similar results.
    Download PDF (2219K)
  • I. Respiratory Types in Japanese
    Setsuko MIYAUCHI
    1960 Volume 26 Issue 1 Pages 68-74,A6
    Published: 1960
    Released: November 19, 2010
    Respiratory movements are carried on mainly by intercostal muscles and diaphragm. They are classified into two types, “ costal ” and “ abdominal or diaphragmatic ”. The former type is dominant in the activities of intercostal muscles and the latter is in that of diaphragm.
    Hutchinson studied respiratory movements chiefly by his sense of touch in subjects seated and divested of clothing. He found that costal respiration is the normal quiet breathing of women and abdomical respiration is of men.
    No study has been made on the respiratory types in Japanese. So the author. tried to clarify the respiratory types in supine, sitting and standing positions. Belt pneumographs were attached to the chest and abdomen of the subjects. From the pneumograms recorded on smoked drums, respiratory movements were classified in three types:
    1. percentage of the respiration types is shown on the following table.
    2. Abdominal type was observed in larger part of Japanese subjects.
    3. The fact that respiratory type of female is costal is not applicable to young Japanese females.
    4. Subjects of costal type increased when they changed position from supine to sitting or standing.
    Download PDF (2581K)
  • II. Chest Movements and Abdominal Movements on Resting Respiration
    Setsuko MIYAUCHI
    1960 Volume 26 Issue 1 Pages 75-78,A7
    Published: 1960
    Released: November 19, 2010
    The author studied the amplitudes of chest and abdominal respiratory movements in supine, sitting and standing positions at rest.
    The results obtained were as follows;
    1. The amplitude of abdominal movements was 2-5 times greater than that of chest movements. This fact was indifferent of sex and age.
    2. Chest movements became, in general, greater, when the subjects changed their posture from supine to sitting and standing.
    Download PDF (744K)
  • III. Stability of Respiratory Movements
    Setsuko MIYAUCHI
    1960 Volume 26 Issue 1 Pages 79-85,A7
    Published: 1960
    Released: November 19, 2010
    Respiration is regulated voluntarily and involuntarily, which makes respiratory movements very complicated. In the first and second reports, the author found the fact that the respiratory type of larger part of Japanese was abdominal. But owing to the complication of respiratory movements, further research was needed in the same sub. jects experimented in winter and summer. Thus following results were obtained.
    1. Seasonal changes of respiratory type were little. Especially in supine position no remarkable change was seen.
    2. In summer the percentage of costal type of young women increased.
    3. Respiratory movements of chest were more stable than that of abdomen. Stability of respiratory movements increased with age.
    4. Abdominal type of respiration was found in larger part of Japanese. Especially in supine position, most subjects respired in abdominal type, indifferent of sex and age.
    5. Respiratory patterns of each subject were fairly stable.
    Download PDF (2884K)
  • Report II. On the Differences by Areas and Living Conditions
    Toshio HARYU
    1960 Volume 26 Issue 1 Pages 86-96,A8
    Published: 1960
    Released: November 19, 2010
    Upon survey of the primary and middle school children in Sendai City grouped by the areas of residence, it was found that, generally speaking, the children living in the central part are higher in stature, but in body weight and breast girth, those in the more outlying parts were found superior. The athletic ability (running, jumping, throwing and horizontal bar exercise) was found better developed among the children in the central and the outlying area and worst in the children in the zone between the, two areas. The intelligence quotient of the children fell lower from the central to the outlying areas.
    Download PDF (2263K)
  • Hisa SUWA
    1960 Volume 26 Issue 1 Pages 97-129,A8
    Published: 1960
    Released: November 19, 2010
    The writer studied and reports herewith the following items in Afghartsitan on. the base of the informations given by Afghan, foreign, and Japanese people and got by herself.
    1. Living conditions,
    2. Constitution
    3. Medical conditions, and
    4. Population problem.
    1. Living conditions : five social classes are given temporarily, for present study. Number of family member is bigger in upper classes. Living co., st_ of family increases sharply from the lower classes to the upper. Engel's coefficient is clearly seen, being 100% in the lower classes. Conditions of inhabitation differ so much by social class.
    Afghan people takes much more quantity of fat and protein than Japanese. Their food condition is entirely adapted to the climate and altitude of the country.
    2. Constitution: Afghans show superior value of stature height, body weight, girth of chest, and sitting height than Japanese. Of mean first menstruation age, Afghan case is earlier by ca. 2 years than Japanese. The uppermost class has earlier first menstruation by 11 monthes than the lowest. Physical development after first menstruation is little. Specific gravity of blood is nearly same in both of Afghans and Japanese, the former approaching to the maximum value already at 12 years and showing smaller variation by age.
    Among Afghan social classes, specific gravity of blood and serum, and hemoglobin increase to the upper class. High blood pressure case occupies more percentage in the upper classes than in the lower.
    Physical marasmus in the month of fast, an Islamic custom, is clearly seen with no difference by age.
    3. Medical situation : Kabul, the capital, has several national well-equipped hospitals and public and private clinics to be enough facilities for the citizens. Kabul University sends out about 40 Afghan physicians every year. Some local cities have well-equipped hospitals, national and/or private. A training school for nurses is attached to a maternity hospital, training several ten nurses every year. No medical charge is requested for patients in all national hospitals and cilnics.
    4. Population problems; the country has very small density of population at present. However, high birth ratio and mortality which is decreasing very sharply with popularizing national healthiness and new medicines of cheap price may suggest remarkable increase in population in near future. Mean value of marriage, age is 17.0 years. Birth frequency is 7.1 at mean value. Mean number of children per a couple is 6.8.
    Download PDF (3744K)
  • Hisa SUWA
    1960 Volume 26 Issue 1 Pages 130-137,A9
    Published: 1960
    Released: November 19, 2010
    Japanese people in Afghanistan has favorable condition as ideally healthy climate, cheap and nutritious foods, and higher salary, but greater part of the people has no ability to enjoy and utilize these favorable conditions and lives single and miserable life with much difficulty and smaller efficiency. Also they stay usually only for one or two years not to become familiar with Afghan conditions and not to have influence on Afghan people.
    Greater part of them is healthy physically, but mentally unstable and some of them even of insanity. It is necessary to send Japanese people with their families, strong will to love and enjoy life in the country and to keep each individual life comfortable and undisturbed by others, and ability to see a matter profoundly. Their fluent foreign languages as English, German, French, Persian or Pashton are desirable.
    Present attitude, of Japanese Government for the country seems not to satisfy Afghan people. As they have friendly feeling to us, when Japanese Government could take appropriate policy for Afghanistan, the relation between these two countries might be improved so much.
    Download PDF (988K)
  • 1960 Volume 26 Issue 1 Pages 138-152
    Published: 1960
    Released: December 22, 2010
    Download PDF (3309K)