We surveyed 52 members (5 males, 47 females) of a self-help group for patients with os teoarthritis of the hip (OA) to identify problems, coping behaviors, and risk factors throughout their lives. This was a mail survey using a semi-structured open-ended questionnaire. The age of subjects ranged from 34 to 75 (mean ± SD: 55.5 ±4.3). 1) There were three types of physical problems: "pain", "hip joint performance problems", and "other problems". The coping behaviors were classified as "health management" and "control of daily life activities". Three risk factors were identified: "Excessive participation in social or leisure activities", "history of injury or disease", and "patient character/lifestyle". 2) OA progression was investigated in four life stages: 0-5 yrs, 6-17 yrs, 18-49 yrs, and over 50 yrs of age. 3) Our findings suggest that parents and health professionals should be informed of early childhood OA risk factors. 4) Children 6-17 years old should be checked for physical difficulties other than pain or hip joint performance problems ("other problems"), which necessitate cooperation with school health authorities. 5) From 18-49 yrs, patients should be informed of methods to manage OA, including the need for medical care. It is during this period that patient QOL becomes a concern. 6) Information about lifestyle changes due to OA progression should be provided to friends and family members of OA patients aged 18-49 yrs and over 50 yrs. 7) OA patients over 50 yrs require continuous supervision by medical professionals.
Background: Social support is related to health in human beings. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between social support, health, living arrangement and subjective well-being in among elderly people. Material and Method: We analyzed the social support among families living together. The support of neighbors and friends was not considered. The subject group consisted of 771 (348 male, 423 female) elderly people, age 55 years and above in a farming village in Akita prefecture. Self administered anonymous questionnaires were used. Volun teers visited each house in November 2001 and collected the questionnaires. Social support was measured with the Measurement of Social Support-Elderly (MOSS-E) scale. Results: The results were as follows. (1) There was a stronger association between social support, health, and living habits (sleep, appetite) in males than in females. (2)Among females, the residential environment had a stronger association with the social support compared with males. (3) An association was found between social support and subjective well-being when two-way ANOVAs (providing X receiving) were used to analyze. On the occasion, receipt support was divided into instrumental and emotional classification. Again, this relationship about main effect was stronger in males than in females, but the interaction was not significant in both sexes.
In order to establish Chinese version of Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development Test, we administered this test for 2606 Chinese infants and children aged from six months to seven years old. According to the scores of each domain (Postural-Motor area, Cognitive-Adaptive, Language-Social area) and of all domains, we designed Chinese conversion table of score and developmental age of Chinese Version Kyoto Development Test. In relation to the analysis of the data on 1096 Chinese children aged from one to three years old, which was once printed in Page3 in Chinese Version Kyoto Development Test, we evaluated the reasonability of Chinese conversion table of score for developmental age through the study of developmental quotient (DQ) based on both Chinese Conversion Table of Score and Developmental Age and the original one. In addition, we compared the average scores in each domain and scores in all domains. We found that in some parts of certain age groups, DQ based on the original version were significantly different between China and Japan. However, it showed no difference or a small difference in using Chinese Version Table of Score and Developmental Age. At the same time, we examined the normality of the distribution of DQ of each age group in Chinese Standardization. DQ based on the original version did not show normal distribution form in some parts of age group. On the other hand, DQ based on Chinese Version Conversion Table of Score and Developmental Age showed normal distribution form in every age group and made good progress. Conse quently, we could establish the reasonability of Chinese Conversion Table of Score and Devel opmental Age.
To study the reliability and validity of Chinese Version Kyoto Development Test, we have analyzed the results of the test administered to 1096 Chinese children aged 1-3 years, including 558 boys and 538 girls, and the following conclusions were established. 1. Inter-observer Reliability: A random sample of 50 cases was selected . According to the results of the test of the two observers, it showed that the correlation coefficients between the two observers were 0.95-1.00, which reached significant level (p < 0.001). 2. Test-retest Reliability: The test-retest correlation coefficients of eight children with one week interval were 0.99-1.00, and the test-retest correlation coefficient between developmental quotients (DQ) ranged from 0.83-0.98. In addition, both of the results showed significant level (p <0.001). 3. Split-half Reliability: The correlation coefficient and the reliability coefficient between the scores based on odd-even method were similar to the statistical mark of Chinese Version Kyoto Development Test. 4. Criterion-related Validity: 267 children were tested on Chinese Version Kyoto Development Test and Chinese Developmental Screening Test with one week interval. Except posturalmotor domain, DQ for other domains and DQ for Chinese Version Kyoto Development Test and mental index of Chinese Developmental Screening Test all showed significant level (p < 0.001). Besides the above, Chinese Version Kyoto Development Test and Chinese Version S-M Social Living Ability Test were also carried on 302 subjects at the same time . The scores of each domain obtained from the two tests showed significant level (p < 0.05, p < 0.001). The results suggested that Chinese Version Kyoto Development Test seemed to be an available and effective developmental test.