Based on materials collected from reliable sources covering the whole parts of Japan, the cephalic type of Japanese adults of both sexes in age groups 20-60 as of 1950-1952 was studied. The result is summarized here: 1. Head length is longest in remote villages and shortest in towns ; the opposite is the case with head breadth. Length-width index: Towps>Rural Village>Mountainous Village>Fishing Village. Head height is generally greater in towns than in villages. 2. Inhabitants of Kinki Area including Kyoto and Osaka are of the town-people type, while Tohoku, Hokuriku and Kyushu people are comparatively long- and low-headed. Peoples of intermediately situated Chugoku, Shikoku and Kanto Areas are also intermediate in cephalic indices. 3. Tsushima islanders are peculiar in the sense that they conform with Kinki people, although the island, in Korean channel, is located near Kyushu. This suggests difference of their discendance. 4. The author's result points to a close relationship of the cephalic indices and head shape with cultural environment and intellectual faculty, broad- and high-headedness being connected with civilization.
Feature of the Postural Blocd Pressure Reflex in pregnant and lying-in women was studied. It showed marked deviations as summarized below from the normal feature : 1. Pregnancy affected restoration of the blood pressure after the posture change, from lying to sitting, in that sense that its retardation in most cases and failure of restoration in many cases were observed, especially in the earliest and latest stages of the pregnancy. 2. In the first half of the first week of the child-bed confinement, retardation and failure of blood pressure restoration, and also fluctuation in the restorative course were observed in many cases. Affection of the reflex restoration of the blood pressure depended on (i) the individual constitution, (ii) absence of previous experience of delivery, (iii) haemorrhage, and (iv) duration of the delivery. By the end of the first week of confinement, the feature of the postural blood pressure reflex generally regained the characteristics of normal women. 3. Both in expectant and confined mothers, diastolic pressure remained unchanged by the change of the posture, as is the case in the normal person. Thus the above described change in the reflex pattern concerns with the pulse pressure.
A biometric study was conducted in Nagano Prefecture, Japan, in August 1952 for the purpose of finding out anthropological characteristics of inhabitants of the Azumi district. Eleven towns and villages which were relatively isolated from blood mixture with other communities were chosen and 520 young adult males were studied with reference to the anthropological measurement of the trunk, limbs, head and face. On the basis of 25 items obtained from the direct measurement and subsequent computation, detailed analyses were made in comparison with other districts where similar survey results were available. In summary, it was found that the inhabitants of Azumi district had relatively little affinity with neighbouring districts, while they showed rather close resemblance to inhabitants of Miyake Island and Tsushima Island. It may be interesting to note, in this connection that local traditions of the district often claim the origin of its inhabitants as immigration of a race which was closely associated with ocean. Partial re3emblance was also noted in the inhabitants to those of Hida (Gifu Pref.) and Upper Ina (Nagano Pref.) districts. Most outstanding was the fact that the length-width index of the head of this district, 81.6, showed distinct contrast with that of Iida (Nagano Pref.) district, 84.1. The present study, it is hoped, will contribute to the formation of a general picture of the genesis of the Japanese race as a whole.
Examination of A-B-0 blood groups was carried out in 3162 inhabitants of the district, including 6 communities. Of these 3 (Hudisawa, Miwa and Inasato) were highland mountainous places and 3 (Takatoo, Kanami and Nagahudi) were situated on more level basins. The biochemical race index or blood group ratio as well as p-q-r, genic frequency ratio computed from the data of the blood groups differed from place to place, even from hamlet to hamlet, without conforming with the known average values for the Japanese race in general. From previous investigations, an intense trend of inbreeding confined to each rural villages were repeatedly reported. For the marked local differences in blood group characteristics of inhabitants, the authors proposed an explanation that the local data do not represent the racial characteristics of the ancestral race, whose sinall samples colonized and settled in each localities several centuries ago, some indeed in the prehistoric period, and these ancesters produced by repeated inbreeding of a high degree the offspring, the inhabitants of these mountainous district as they now are. In regions, such as Japan, where trend of inbreeding is very high, local differences of blood group characteristics could not be used as supporting local differences of their racial origin.