The patterns of morbidity and mortality among Japanese immigrants in the USA and Brazil are different from those observed in Japan, approximating the patterns characteristic of the countries they have settled in (Haenszel, W., et al., 1968, Gotlieb, 5., 1974). This is considered to be attributable to changes in environmental factors, mainly eating habits. In the present study, in order to elucidate factors determining the eating habits existing among immigrants, we investigated the current pattern of eating habits in two settlements in Bolivia, where Japanese immigrants have lived for more than 30 years since the end of the Second World War, i.e., settlement Okinawa composed of immigrants from Okinawa, and settlement San Juan composed of immigrants from the Japanese mainland (mostly Kyushu). Changes in eating habits after immigration were also determined by comparing the patterns before and after immigration. In these two settlements, human ecological studies concerning trace elements and heavy metals in the hair (Tsugane, S., 1986a, Tsugane, S., et al., 1987) and epidemiological studies on blood pressure (Tsugane, S., et al., 1986b, 1988) and viral infection (Tsugane, S., et al., 1989) have been already carried out. Although both settlements are composed of Japanese immigrants, differences have been found between the two in relation to chemical elements in the hair and health index. A survey of eating habits was also carried out in 1975 in 34 families of immigrants in San Juan by the method of dietary recording (Suzuki, T., et al., 1981).
Obesity index and serum T3 and T4 in 53 males who lived in Shiramine-village, Ishikawa prefecture were measured and classified by the amount of cigarettes smoked in a day. The results obtained were as follows. 1) Obesity index in smokers with under 20 cigarettes in a day was significantly lower than that in non smokers. However, there were no significant differences in the obesity index between smokers with over 21 cigarettes in a day and non-smokers. 2) There were no significant differences in the serum T3 or T4 levels among smokers with under 20 cigarettes in a day, smokers with over 21 cigarettes in a day and non-smokers. These reuslts suggest that there was little relationship between inhibition of increase of body weight and thyroid function in male smokers.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the living problems of the sick elderly people through their role expectation. Subjects are 72 sick people and 30 institutional elderly people who live in pure rural district neighboring Tokushima City. Every one of them is over 60 years old. We examined the relation between the place of life and role expectation on the basis of the results of the investigation. The results obtained are as follows: 1) Sick elderly people have high sense of independence, but have low role expectation toward others for example, their family and community members. This tendency was remarkable with sick elderly people at home. 2) Compared with the people at home, a few of institutional, sick people have roles toward their family but many of them have roles toward their spouses and neighbors, also about this matter significant difference was recognized. 3) For about the image of their old age, many of sick people answered the decline of health and pension life. Compared the people at home with the institutional, clear difference could not be recognized about this matter. For the reasons mentioned above, it may be said that elderly people have passive role expectations toward others. Especially, sick people at home show this tendency a great deal, and their adaptation is in declining condition even when we regard it with subjectivity. But institutional people have more role expectations than sick people at home, they are thought to be making efforts to find out how to copewith their adaptation . In this study, the problem of the life of sick people at home was suggested.
For the purpose of investigating the factors relating to the recent average life span (e0) in Japan, relationships were studied between e0 and medical and health indices (27 itmes), food and others (21 items) about 10 and 5 years before the e0, from point of annual changes and geographical distributions of items. Coefficients of serial correlation and geographical correlation were positive and significant for men between e0 and number of pharmacists and quantity of milk purchase about 10 and 5 years before the e0, watersupply extension rate 5 years before the e0, so were geographical correlation coefficients between changes in e0 by year and in above 2 items. For women above correlations were positive and significant in coefficients between e0 and number of clinics 10 years before the e0. On the other hand those correlations were negative and significant in coefficients for men between e0 and livelihood protection rate 5 years before the e0. These results suggest that number of pharmacists, watersupply extension rate and quantity of milk purchase relate positively to the recent average life span for men and livelihood protection rate does negatively, and number of clinics relate positively for women in Japan.