Physical activity patterns were investigated in ten elderly men (mean age 72.1 years) living on a remote isolated island that has undergone a simultaneous rapid decrease in population and rapid growth of the elderly population. Acceleration monitoring, recorded every two minutes, was conducted for each subject on seven consecutive days to determine their total daily energy expenditure (TEE). Anthropometry, blood pressure, and handgrip strength measurements were made. Consequently, four men were judged as obese and six as hypertensive. According to a Japanese standard reference, the mean daily physical activity level (PAL) of the subjects was categorized as moderately low. By contrast, the mean daily step frequency (STEP) exceeded the national standard average (4, 787 steps/day) for the same age-sex group. Moreover, six men exceeded the target value for elderly men (6, 700 steps/day). Intra-day variation in the physical activity intensities measured every two hours reflected the subjects' lifestyles;however, no particular tendency was observed in the daily variation in the PAL. All the subjects were retired from regular employment, and no longer worked on a schedule. Consequently, no significant difference was observed in PALS between weekdays and weekends. Bland and Altman analysis clarified that the TEE calculated using the accelerometer was underestimated, which supports previous studies. The significant relationships between the physical activity indices (PAL and STEP) and blood pressure or handgrip strength suggest that walking andpromoting physical fitness have important roles in maintaining and increasing PALS in the elderly. Physical activity may be a key factor in preventing hypertension in the elderly.
Objective : The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate the feasibility of a web-based stress management program to promote psychological well-being. Methods : This study was based on a single group (N=28 (male :15, female : 13), age =35.8±9.9, white-collar workers), pre-, post-test design. The evaluation measures include participants'perceived evaluation of the program, such as its comprehensiveness, informativeness, interestingness, as well as degeree of intention to act and self-efficacy belief. Participants'psychological well-being and mental health were measured pre (T1) -and post (T2) -intervention. All measures were conducted on the web. Results : Participant evaluation of the program was positive, and these results appear to confirm the feasibility of using web-based stress management programs. High 'intention to act' and 'self-efficacy belief' were reported, and these measures positively correlated with post-intervention psychological well-being after the intervention (P<.01). Program primary outcome, psychological wellbeing increased positively (T1=189.5±32.6, T2=195.6±31.6, P<.01), and among secondary outcomes, only STAT-state was improved (T1=41.8±10.4, T2=38.1±12.3, P<.05), but no significant difference was found for CRS-D, psychosomatic symptoms, and job satisfaction. Conclusion : Web-based stress management program for the enhancement of personal psychological well-being are feasible, and participants'perceived 'intention to act' and 'self-efficacy beliefs' were important exposures that influenced outcome. Further evaluation of the effectiveness of web based stress management programs requires controlled trials using larger samples with more varied demographics and investigation of program efficacy in longer-term follow-up.
As the aging society is developing all over the world quickly, the problems related to health and longevity become important and persistent. The purpose of this study was to compare the demographical status between senior citizens in Xinjiang, China and in Okinawa and Nagano, Japan, where are well-known as longevity areas, and nature and culture are extremely different. We used Japanese national census for 1985-2000 and Chinese national census for 1982-2000. Chi-square test and life expectancy of survival analysis were performed to compare the proportion of 65 years or more and the centenarian people per 100, 000 and life expectancy between China (Xinjiang) and Japan (Okinawa, Nagano). The following results were obtained 1) The proportions of the centenarian people in Xinjiang in 1982 were more than those in Japan in 1985 for both men and women. In 2000, the proportions of centenarian people in Xinjiang were more in men, and less in women (except for the figure based on population aged 65years or more) compared to those in Japan. 2) In Xinjiang, 2000, the proportion of centenarian people became greater, and men were still dominant to women, but the life expectancy for each age group was shorter in men than those in women. In Japan, both proportion of centenarian people and life expectancy were more in women than those in men. 3) In 2000, the life expectancy of 0-79 years old men in Nagano was 0.1-7.7 years longer than that in Xinjiang for each year group, but the ? 80 years old men was 1.3-2.5 years shorter in Nagano than that in Xinjiang. The life expectancy of 0-89 years old women was 0.5-12.5 years longer in Okinawa than in Xinjiang for each year group, and that of ? 90 years old women was inversed with 0.8-1.2 years between the two.