In China, an increase of the aged population has been noted due to the following factors: (1) low mortality rate, (2) prolongation of life span, and (3) employment of the One-Child-Policy regulation. A study on the life cycle has been held in Shanghai and Zhejiang Province; the most concentrated areas of aged populations in China. Regarding the percentage of the aged within the Chinese population, Shanghai is presently compared with the Japanese population of 1980, while the Zhejiang Province is compared with the Japanese population of 1970. The Chinese life cycle has changed widely at the same time by prolongation of life-expectancy mainly among the aged population. Life expectancies are 73.5 in males and 77.4 in females in both areas. Therefor it has become very important in the aged population of China of adopting a policy of how to live a meaningful "Third Life". In regard to the above mentioned social needs, the Family Planning Committies of the Governments of Shanghai and Zhejiang have conducted an actual life survey on 1, 600 elderly people. The survey results on the life cycle of aged in China are follows; 1) The childbearing period which is the interval between the birth of the first child and that of the last child after marriage is 13.9 years. 2) The period of dependent children which is the duration from the birth of the first child to the graduation of the youngest child is 27.7 years. 3) The period of a three-generation household which is the term from birth of the first grandchild to death of the grandparent is 20.6 years in males and 29.2 years in females. 4) Male post-retirement period which is the term from retirement to death is 13.5 years. 5) The period of dependent elderly parent which is period from father's retirement to the death of the both spouses is 21.0 years. 6) The period of widowhood which is the term between the deaths of the two spouses is 8.6 years.
The Japan Poison Information Center (JPIC) received 205, 199 inquiries from citizens and medical personnel for 5 years from April, 1989 to March, 1995. And, the number of inquiries concerning with suicide in those was 5, 778. In July 1993, the book named the Suicidal Manual were published in Japan and since then, the inquiries concerning with suicide attempts have increased. So, I analyzed these data about implicated products and contrasted the data received before the publication of the manual to the data received after that on purpose to make clear the affection of the Suicidal Manual. In regard to the substance that was selected in suicide attempts cases, teen-ager and the twenties tend to use medicines, especially over-the-counter drugs and older people tend to use agricultural chemicals. After the book was published, the number of inquiries about some over-the-counter drugs that were shown as appropriate way for easy and painless death in the book had increased. So, it is very important to give the young people the information of drug toxicity and appropriate management of drugs to decrease the influence of the book.
The proportion of subcutaneous fat thickness at each site of the body in relation to increase in the percentage of total body fat, and the distributions of the percentage of total body fat and physique index (circumference of each site per height) were examined. The subcutaneous fat thickness values were determined by A-mode ultrasonoscope and the percentage of total body fat were calculated from underwater weighing method. The subjects were 112 (60 men and 52 women) healthy Caucasian (live in USA) volunteers aged from 18 to 49 participated in this study. The subcutaneous fat thickness was measured at six sites: subscapular, abdomen, suprailium, biceps, triceps and quadriceps. The mean values of percentage of total body fat of all subjects were 11.7 ± 4.1% for men and 21.4 ± 5.3% for women. The rate of increase in the subcutaneous fat thickness as a result of increase in percentage of total body fat was maximal at the abdominal site in both men and women. Rates of increase were also found (in descended order) as of suprailium, quadriceps, subscapular, triceps and biceps for men; and suprailium, quadriceps, triceps, subscapular and biceps for women. The distribution of subcutaneous fat thickness showed no coincidental increases in the thickness and in the percentage of total body fat and the physique index for either men or women. In particular, values of subcutaneous fat thickness at the abdominal site varied more widely than those at any other sites regardless of sex. Additionally, the values for abdominal subcutaneos fat thickness showed the greatest variation even among subjects with the same percentage of total body fat and physique index. This variation of abdominal fat thickness was proposed to have resulted from individual differences in subcutaneous fat versus visceral fat.
This study examined the influence of civic responsibility and demographic characteristics on participation rates for health examination services. Comparisons were made among the cross-sectional data concerning attendance rates for four types of health examinations on the basis of voter turnout for a prefectural governor election and socioeconomic factors in 99 municipalities of Gifu Prefecture, Japan, in fiscal years 1988 and 1992. The percentage of residents who received health examinations provided by local authorities is generally regarded as one of the principal indices for the activity level of health services. The voter turnout for prefectural governor elections was interpreted as an index of civic responsibility. The socioeconomic factors chosen included data on population, industries, economy, vital statistics, health and medical care, and social security. The attendance rates for basic health examinations, tuberculosis screenings and gastric cancer screenings correlated strongly and positively with the voter turnout for prefectural governor elections, although, the rate for uterine cancer screening showed weaker correlation. The attendance rates are generally higher in the smaller municipalities and lower in the larger municipalities. A lower proportion of public debt expense in the municipalities was another determinant of higher attendance rates for health examinations. A higher proportion of elderly people decreased the attendance rates for cancer screening. These results support the hypothesis that attendance at health examinations is influenced chiefly by the civic responsibility of the residents and, to a lesser extent, by socioeconomic factors within the municipalities. Other factors may be important in the attendance rate for uterine cancer screening. The author concluded that the attendance rates for health examinations, as indices for the activitylevel of the services, must be assessed after adjusting for these factors.