The purpose of the present study is to examine whether or not one's life environment factors effect on his state of health. Data were gathered from those who took health examinations at a health care center during the period of June 3 to Sepetember 22, 1987. A total of 1200 males and females were surveyed. Of those only males (N=955) are singled out for detailed study. The analysis focuses upon examination of the relationship between the subjects' life habits (e.g. exercise habit, ocupation, etc.) and various health index scores obtained from clinical chek-ups of the subjects. The results include the followings: 1. Relationships were found between life habits (i.e. occupation, smoking, driving, and motorcycle riding) and various health indexes considered. 2. Greater deviation in blood sugar (at the time of starvation) was ovserved for those reqularly exercise for their health sake, whereas more of those without exercise habit tended to deviate with regard to heart-lung ratio, red blood cell count, and MCV. 3. Those who were considered working too hard showed significantly higher level of obesity and TG (triglyceride), but the number of deviants on these indexes were relatively small for them. 4. Greater deviation in cardiac funcution (i.e. RaV5) was observed for those having a concurrent job position. 5. A large proportion of heavy smokers (i.e. those who smoke more than 21 cigarettes per day) were found to be deviants regarding body type, hemogram, and blood circulation. 6. Greater deviation in cardiac function (i.e. RaV5, SV1 + RV5, and heart-lung ratio) was observed for those who drive a car and/or riding a motercycle. The above results suggest that one's life habit such as exercise, occupation, smoking, and driving have an effect on his state of health including obesity, blood pressure, heartlung ratio from X-ray photograph, RaV5 and SV1 + RV5 from electrocardiograph, blood count, and biochemical test results of blood.
The secular changes and regional differences in perinatal, infant and early childhood mortality rates were studied for the period 1967 through 1986 using the health statistics issued by the Kagoshima prefectural government. The inter-relation of these mortality rates was also discussed. The following findings were made. 1) The infant mortality rate and early childhood mortality rates have generally declined progressively in the course of a 20-year period 1967 through 1986, the decrease was much more marked in infant mortality rate than in early childhood mortality rates and much greater in the first 15 years than afterward. The current low rates of infant mortality suggest that further decrease will be slower or difficult to achieve . Since 1980, in particular, the 1-year-old mortality rate has practically increased rather than stagnated. Then, a hypothesis was proposed that the increased rate in 1-year-old mortality was one of the causes of the decline in infant mortality rate by delaying deaths into the post-infant period. The late fetal death rate has also declined over the study period, the decrease was consistent with the pattern of infant mortality rate. 2) There were no marked differences between males and females for the changing patterns in infant and early childhood mortality rates. However, considerable differences in these mortality rates between male and female infants existed, in that male infants had consistently higher rates of mortality as compared with female infants . 3) Among 16 community-bases regional groups within the health center's jurisdiction, the income level was inversely correlated with both infant mortality rate and 1-4 year mortality rate. This correlation was significant for female infants but not for male infants. This fact raised a quetion whether the beneficial effects of urbanization in local communities on the infant and early childhood mortality rates were shown firstly among male infants. In contrast, fetal component of perinatal mortality was inversely correlated with female infant mortality rate but not with male infant mortality rate. The lower mortality rate reported for female infants may be partly attributed to the poor registration of infant deaths, since eraly neonatal deaths are sometimes reported as fetal death.
The subcutaneous fat thickness was investigated to obtain the general characteristics of Japanese fat distribution by sex and age. Our subjects consist of 1, 477 males and 1, 933 females of all age groups in various localities in Japan. The newly developed A-mode type ultrasonic instrument was utilized to measure fat thickness including such locations as biceps, triceps, subscapula, suprailiac, thigh anterior, thigh posterior, and calf. The data obtained were analyzed by mean, standard deviation, and percentile. Our findings are summarized as follows: 1) It is confirmed that the subcutaneous fat layer of females is thicker than that of males. 2) Examining the ratio of upper-arm and trunk in subcutaneous fat layer, i.e. (biceps+triceps)/(subscapula + suprailiac), the adults' ratios are smaller than those of infants, and adult males accumulate more fat abdominally than adult females do. 3) The percentiles we obtained will provide the criteria for subcutaneous fat thickness of the Japanese by sex and age.