I have principally studied juvenile delinquents who were taken into reformatories; and the causes of their errors which were fund chiefly in their heredity and environment. The various results of my investigatim lespecting their heredity revealed that there were many insane or feeble-minded persons, Erni confirmed criminals among their cloae relatives. They seem to have inherited many defects from their parents, such as congenital weak character and mental degeneration. Especially, syphilis hereditaria was proved in 19.9% by means of Wasserman's reaction. The result of mental test proved none of very supe for and supeiior: only 3.1% were high average, 16.9 % were average, 42.1% low average, 27.8 % were inferior, and 9.8 % were very inferior. These figures show us that there are very few of the high intellcctual among them, but they are generally inferior in that respect. The study of their environment shows that many of them came from poor families. The most remarkable fact 13 that many of them are orphans. Those who are not in orphanage hold totally only 30.5%. Only a few were brought up by their parents, and the rest were separate from thcm by death or other circumstances. Those who were separated from their parents at an early age were generally found to talce a poorer course in inverse proportion to their ages. Only 8.6% had good friends, the rest had none or only vicious ones. Thus we can easily judge that they are greatly tempted by vicious companions. Their school recorie were generally poorerthan the; r Inte ligence quotient. This is perhaps due to their family conditions and individualities. Among the delinquents there were also many who were suffering from urinal incoltinance in sleep; those who were not suffering from it over five years of age, were only 32.6%. As for their blood groups, they agreed w th those of the Japanese in general, and no Sfseciality was found about them. If there were any relation between the blood groups and their dispositions, as is insisted upon by some scholars, there must be to some extent any Peculiarity in blood groups of juvenile delinquents but thies was not to find. With regard to the immediate causes of their crimes, the needs of money to spend on sweets and to visit cinemas, were the most general; the temptation of vicious friends, idleness, and degeneration came next in number; and some of them were also found to be delinquent after having been brought up in an indulgent way, or with excessive reproaches. As for the order of their birth, it seems that first born children were in the majority, but comparatively few were found among the eldests and the youngests when there were more than two in a family; and many were found in children who were in the middle among childerns of the same paren
Fs wurden insgesamt 572 aus dem Dorf Piratori und dessenUmgebung sogrnanten Saru-Gebiet) in ber provinz Hidakar. Hok (kaido) herstammende Aino der dermatologischen Untersuchung unterzogen und dabei folgende Resultate eizielt. Wie bekannt sieht man beim Aino in überaus grosser Anzahl (75%) Hypertrichosis. Krauselhaare gibt es relativ wenig (16, 6%). Alle Ainosäuglinge zeigen ausnahmslos Mogolenflecke. Osmidrosis axillae ist ziemlich häufig (10, 8%). Infolge von unhygienischen und primitiven Lebensweise trifft man sehr oft Kopfläuse (bei Weibern 37%) und Trichomycosis (29, 6%). Hingegen gibt es auffallend wenig Fadenpilzerkrankungen wie Favus, Trichophytia und Pityriasis versicolor etc. und ebenso Ekzema (3, 6%). Was endlich Hautsyphilis anbelangt, so ist die manifeste Form sehr selten (ungefähr 1%). Fs war nur ein Fall von C ondyloma bei jungen Madchen, ein Männ mit Tabes uncl ein Mädchen mit gummöser Narbe am Kopf nebst Lebervergrösserung zu sehen. Alle Drei zeigten sehr intensive W. R. Im Cegensatz hierzu ist die Ausbreitung von latenten Syphilis wirklich fürchterlich. Nach den serologischen Untersuchung von Prof. Uchimura und seinen Mitarbeitern am Piratori-Aino bel uft sich die positive W. R. bei Männern 3 bei Frauen sogar 43, 7%. Im reif en Alter (26-451) ist bei beidei Ceschlechtern ungefähr die Hälfte syphilitisch erkrankt. Damit hängt es zusammen, dass Ainoweiber sehr oft (21, 25%) Abortusanamnese aufweisen. Tripper ist bei Ainomänmrn auch ziemlich häufig und ebenso Leucorrhoe bei Weibern. Der weiche Schanker hingegen war kein einziges Mal zu finden
In the educational researches on children in schools, a problem of constitution norm is one whose importance has come recently to be realized and it is a natural course that for stature, weight and the correlations between them, the respective norms are to be formed and furnished for the judgmet of constitution. Now, we must know that the constitution may be differentiated under influences not only of tce environment but of innate or racial factors, and th 3se factors can not be said to he eq ial in all parts of the country. The fact that the records of race mixture are comparatively new in our history, makes it more probable that several racial types exist throughout the country. Especially, in the secluded districts which lack facilities for communication, we see these phenomena. Moreover, we may conclud: that the inhabitants of the mountain and the town or level regions have not necessarily the same constitution types for being affected not only by the environment but by a social or racial selection. So we feel that the constitution norm formed in one region should not fitly be applied to any other one. Though, in this study, I put a main point to observations of the growth of children throughout Prefecture of Fukui, the statistical investigations for the difference due to the above mentionced influences gave me much interest. Thus one will admit that my observations were directed to the children in the mountain, level and town regions. The data availed are children in elementary schools numbering 61 in all. They total 22, 651 in number, of which boys are 11, 541 and girls 11, 110 and the age range is 7 to 13 years. D tailed statistical analys's showed the following results: (a) The mean stature s highest in the town3, the -evel regions come next, with the mountain parts lowest; and its differences in the three regions are in each age proved significant by statistical. criteria, with an exception of two or three cases; (b) As to a sexual discrepancy, the stature of girls uader 10 years old is inferior to boys of the same age, but in 11 years they bath stand almost on an equality. The results coincide with those of the Department of Eiw!ation ; (c) Annual increases of stature are least in the towrs and largest in the level and mountain regions. On the contra17, for girls those of the towns are larg, st, the troultain regions least and the level lie in the middle of them. Comparative annual increases between girls and boys are gederally larg r in the former than the latter; (d) The mean weight in three regions corresponds to the variation of stature, one o the towns being largest, ihe level regions follow in order, with th mountain least, but the differenc s among them are too small to be significant ii a statistical view of point; (e) A sexual discrepancy of weight shows almost the same phenomen1 as that of stature; (f) Annual increses of weight are small in 6 to 8 years oil and large in higher ages; (g) The distributions of stature and weight are the same with each other and grow with ages; (h) The correlations between stature and weight ranging 0.685 to 0.845 represent a substantial degree of correla--lion in the system and with the higher ages they are the greater; (i) The regression coefficient of stature on weight decreales with growing ages on the contrary; (j) The regression coefficien's of weight on s ature are different for girls and boys; those for girls, as compared with boys, are less under 10 years, almost the same in 11 an I higher over 12. Cm. weight increases with growingages, and the order of its values in three regions ranks thus: the mountain, the level and the town region, the last one being least.
Dr Verfasser durchmustert die Fingerabdrücke von Aino, welche im Juli 1934 im Dorf Piratori, Hokkaido, von Verfasser selbst angefertigt wurden, und teilt folgendes mit. Das betreffende Material besteht aus 1853 Fingerabdrücke von 58 erwachsmen Aino-Männern und 130 ebensolchen Weibern, welche fast ausnahmslos auf dem Saru Gebiete, Provinz Hidaka bewohnen, und angeblich sowie somatoskopisch rein zu sein schienen. Die Ergebnisse sind im Detail auf den Tabellen 1-6 zusammengestellt. Im Vergleich mit einer früheren Arbeit von Prof. Hasebe ('18) welche is Heute die einzige Mitteilung über das Hautleisten von Aino gewesenb ist, stellt sich kein gründlicher Unterschied heraus. Bei Aino treten U-Muster häufiger, dagegen W-Muster seltener als bei Japaner auf. Sonstige Mustertypen zeigen kelne merkwürdigen Unterschiede zwischen den beiden Rassen. Demgemass fällt der Digital-Index (nach Furuhata, W (%) /U (%) R (%). -100) von Aino ausserhalb oder an der Grenze de=r Variationsbreite des betreffenden Index von Japaner.[nämlich : 56.0, : 42.1 bei Aino im gegensatz durchschnitt 63. 52, and Variationsbreite 78.00-55.88 bei Japaner nach Hirai ('28).] Bilaterale und geschlechtliche Häufigkeitsunterschiede der 4 Hauptmustertypen bei A. no unter sich sind auf der Tabelle 3 ersichtlich. Was die Musterkonibination an den 5 Fingern anbelangt, so ist die Formel uuuuu am häufigsten bi beiden Geschlechtern vertreten. Die Formel wwwww, die sich um eine der wichtigsten Kombinationen bei Japaner handelt, tritt hier dagegen stark zurück, nähmlich U5/W5: 7.0, 7.6, 7.5 bei Aino gegenüber 1.09 nach Angaben Prof. Hasebe. oder 1.11 nach Takeuchi bei Japaner.