The present study deals with the method of calculating the probability of being MZ, when many Mendelian characters are concordant in regard to same-sexed twin pairs. This method is based on the Bayes' theorem. For the calculation of the probability, the ratio of D by M (D/M) is needed, where M or D means the conditional probability of MZ or samesexed DZ respectively. The general formula of DIM was presented by means of gene frequency among general population, by considering the parents' genotype according as whether both are known or one of them is known, or both are unknown. The procedures are applicable to all kinds of Mendelian characters, provided the mode of inheritance is confirmed. The value of D/M was given by using gene frequencies among Japanese general population. The tables of these value were shown in about 30 Mendelian characters, for example, ABO, MN, Rh blood groups and so on, for practical use. By using these tables, the probability of being MZ can be calculated. It was concluded that the bjective criteria for zygosity diagnosis was given by the method in this study.
To study the biological and behavioral process of the drastic fertility decline of recent China, we reviewed relating factors (the proximate determinants) and applied the Bongaarts model to the population of China for the year of 1971 and 1981, during which the fertility rate dropped most rapidly and substantial population control policies were performed. By the application of the model, the decrease in TFR of 2.78 between 1971 and 1981 was estimated to be contributed by wide spread of contraception (68%), later marriage (49%), and increase of induced abortion (28%), though shortening of the length of postpartum breast?feeding showed negative effect (-32%), on the assumption that local data could be substituted for some national data. Compared with other countries, China was characterized by coexistence of strong fertility-inhibiting effects of non-marriage, contraception, induced abortion and relatively strong fertility-inhibiting effect of breast-feeding. It strongly suggested that the fertility transition in China was realized by powerful population policies in the context of insufficient socio-economic development to lead to the transition.
As a result of the Korean National Nutrition Survey over 17 years from 1969 to 1986, and considering the data of other nutritional status survey, we reported changes of nutrition and food intake and recent nutritional status in Korea. In the recent situation of nutrition intake in Korea, it seems that the Korean people almost overcome quantitative problems in general but they are now in the stage of qualitative improvement. A pretty big gap, however, still exists in nutritional status among individual communities and groups. This gap cannot be separated from social and cultural characteristics such as income, educational level, age and sex. When we discuss the nutritional problems in the whole community health, it is inevitable to solve the health and nutritional problems in the vulnerable populations, especially in the low income class of rural district and city by public health approach.