The longevity rate, as the major indicator, the corrected death rate and the corrected proportional mortality indicator in cities, towns and villages in Gif u Prefecture have been studied. (Longevity rate = Percentage of ages population 70 and over to all population) Furthermore the standard scores of the three indicators are calculated. The results of the study were summarized as follows; 1) The longevity rate is still useful, in order to investigate the epidemiologic study of longevity. 2) The longevity rate is invariable indicator though the corrected death rate and corrected PMI are unstable in each year. 3) There is no close correlation between the longevity rate and the corrected death rate, and that no relation between the longevity rate and the corrected PMI. 4) The villages and towns surrounding the planes of "Mino" area have good results in the corrected longevity rate. But in "Hida" area in northern, in "Ena" area in eastern and in "Nanno" area in low moisture zone there are few villages and towns which show good results.
This paper discussed correlation between longevity indicators and living indicators in order to clarify the factors of the longevity in Gifu Prefecture . To summarize them the results are f olows : Corrected longevity indicators (one of the longevity indicators) and many living indicators such as tax of electricity and gas, etc. have a high correlations, but corrected death rates and corrected PMI have not the correlations . Concretly speaking of them, the regions where have many old peoples are slow to be citified and are not rich in financial conditions. The residences of them are wide to live, the rythm of living are leisurely. From the point of labor forms of old peoples, the forestry is maybe to suit to longevity. It is important to show that the growth degree in growing population and longevity indicators have a negative correlations.
This study has been tried to analyse the mechanism of environmental assimilation of human body to the subtropical climate condition from the evaluation of heat and cold tolerances in the Okinawan residents exposing constantly to a high temperature throughout the year. Twelve healthy male adults immigrating to the Okinawan district from the mainland of Japan were selected for this study with the same number of controls natively residing in Okinawa. The load of 30°C, 70% humidity for 60 minutes with the continuous recording of body surface temperatures and the detection of metabolic rates at 0, 30 and 60 minutes, and, the load of 10°C, 70% humidity for 60 minutes with the measurement of sweating volume and sodium concentration was carried on the individuals in each group. The mean body surface temperature was gradually descended after the start of cold exposure in both group, however, the depletion was relatively steep in the mainland group. The amount of heat exsudation caliculating as a metabolic rate was gradually increased with the progress of cold exposure in both group, however, the increasing tendency of those was more prominent in the Okinawan group. The amount of sweating volume obtained during the heat exposure with the decrease of body weight exceeding in the mainland group was recognized with the high rate of sodium excretion in comparison with those in the Okinawan group. These data suggested that the individuals of mainland group is more compatible t o the cold tolerance with the less heat tolerance capacity residing in subtropical area, however, no definite indication of environmental assimilation to high temperature in the mainland group is confirmed during this short experiment.
A historical study was made on the population before the Meiji era based on the data in sect census registers and obituaries in temples. The results obtained were as follows: 1) There had been little change in the population before the Meiji era; this may be due to the policy to keep the female population below a certain limit. 2) The average age of the first marriage was young, but the age difference between the couple was fairly large; many babies were born and died, because of the poor pediatric care; many mothers died, too, because of the poor maternal care. 3) The obituaries valid as data for historical studies of census were less than 13per cent. 4) A health statistical study on obituaries disclosed that before the Meiji era outbreaks of communicable diseases, typhoid fever and cholera in particular, increased the number of deaths. 5) The main causes of death among minors were, besides the foregoing two, influenza, measles, and pest. Famine was another cause to bring about death. 6) It was found that the range of prevalence could be estimated by comparing the obituaries for the populus with those for the w.arrier class. 7) The standard of pediatric health, which was apparently low in view of the high mortality for minors, was presumably lower in the common people in the warrior class. 8) The standard of maternal health was presumably lower in the common people than in the warrior class as shown from the comparison of the mortality ratio between both sexes. 9) A comparative study on senile health by means of PMI revealed that females had longer lives than males.
The main purpose of this study was laid on vital statistics concerning basic factors of births, deaths, marriages, and divorces including changes in population growth of the Korean population in Japan. An analysis, one of series of demographic-ecological studies on Vital Statistics from 1965 to 1975 issued by the Ministry of Health and Welfare of Japan was undertaken in order to study the recent trends of the Korean population in Japan and compare it with the Japanese population. The major findings are summarized as follows. 1) The Korean population in Japan has been slightly increasing yearly, and the average annual growth rate was 1.05 percent per year from 1965 to 1975.The ratio of total dependent population has decreased from 57.1 percent in 1965 to 50.8 percent in 1975, but it is expected to show a little increase in the near future. 2) Trends in crude birth rate and crude death rate from 1965 to 1975 have steadily declined, while natural increase rate was higher than that of Japanese.The crude birth rate and crude death rate of the Korean population in Japan in 1965 were 21.7 and 5.7 per 1, 000 population, in 1975, 17.9 and 4.7 per 1, 000 population, respectively, whereas the corrected death rate was rather higher than the Japanese. More interestingly, it is concluded that the Japanese folk superstition of Hinoe-Uma in 1966 seemed to be a factor influencing the crude birth rate, stillbirth rate of Koreans in Japan, whereas the extraordinary passing phenomenon was not showed in Korea. 3) The infant death rate has declined very rapidly from 15.8 in 1965 to 8.2 per 1, 000 live births in 1975 and stillbirth rate was also declined from 56.3 in 1965 to 40.5 per 1, 000 total births in 1975. 4) Major cause of death have remarkably changed due to the efficient public health services. Malignant neoplasms, cerebrovascular disease, heart disease were for the three leading causes of death of the Korean population in Japan in 1975. Specific death rates by major causes of death of Koreans in Japan for liver cirrhosis, accidents, suicide, and pan-tuberculosis were higher 38.0, 38.5, 22.4, and 12.8 per 100, 000 population in 1975 than that of the Japanese, respectively. 5) Marriages of Koreans in Japan have increased and the crude marriage rate was 9.8 in .1965 and 11.2 per 1, 000 population in 1975, slightly higher than that of Japanese . It is more considered that the intermarriages of the Korean-Japanese bridegroom or bride have increased and it will overwhelm the level of Korean-Korean marriages in a few years, and general divorce rates have tended to increase following the Japanese.