According to the acoustical method introduce here, a pair of pure tones, of 2 kHz with a duration of 20 msec, was given repeatedly as acoustical stimuli. The interval of the two tones was changed stepwisely to determine the threshold, Tm, of acoustical fusion of the two tones. Simultaneously, the traditional optical flicker fusion technique was used to determine the corresopnding threshold, Fm. Then, Tm was examined whether it could be utilized to measure fatigue. The following three kind of experiments were carried out: 1) Tm showed a reasonable diurnal change, which was just in the counter phase of that of Fm. 2) A questionnaire survey about various factors ascribable to subjective fatigue in daily activities was conducted, and made measurement and analysis of these various factors of fatigue including Tm and Fm. (a) The weights of the factors contributing to Tm and Fm was assessed by Hayashi's Quantification Theory (I). The result showed that Fm was determined chiefly by the major activity of the day, the type of drinks taken just before the measurement, and the degree of waking level, while Tm tended to be determined by the day of the week, weather conditions, etc. also, it was found that both of Fm and Tm were determined similarly by the activity prior to measurement, the subjective fatigue level, and the time of measurement. (b) The weights of factors contributing to subjective fatigue was determined by Hayashi's Quantification Theory (II). The result showed that the subjective fatigue was mainly determined by the degree of waking level, Tm, the activity prior to the measurement, and Fm. 3) Fm and Tm were changed by VDT workload. Fm was changed in the negative direction, while Tm was changed in the positive. Thus, it may be concluded that Tm is acceptable as a indicator of work-indused fatigue.
To elucidate the effects on skin lesions from agricultural pesticides, the author studied the mechanisms of moisture transmission, penetration speed, residual and vaporizing portions of the pesticides through different types and combinations of female farm working clothes. Also dermal patch tests of the pesticides were carried out through the specimens of the clothes with cooperation of male subjects . The following results were obtained. 1) In case of single layers of clothes, moisture transmission, penetration speeds are much bigger through knits than woven fablics irrespective of the chemicals . Penetration rates of film type clothes are almost 1/10 of fablic clothes, and the chemicals remain on it. 2) When a cloth of a woven fablic is placed over a woven fablic, the indices of transmission, penetration, residual and vaporizing portions are much bigger than the combination of woven fablic over a knit . And the values differ according to the type of solvents of the chemicals, too. 3) Higher positive reaction of dermal patch test is seen in wettable powder of organochloride pesticide, Daconil. Reactions through knit clothes are shown highest positivity both to the wettable powder of Daconil and also to emulsif iable concentrate of DDVP. 4) These results clearly indicate the importance of selection and combination of clothes to treat the pesticides, and also the needs to use protective clothes for spraying the chemicals.
Self-administered health questionnaire, the Todai Health Index (THI), was filled out by 41 girl students of a public nurse school; age ranged from 21 to 27 with an average of 22.4. The result of THI of a girl student including 12 scale scores and 2 discriminant function values was shown to the girl with explanation. She was asked to write her comments as to whether the results of her THI were true, false or intermediate for her. Scores for "Respiratory Organ", "Nervousness" and "Digestive Organ", were nearest grades of self-perception, but "Aggressiveness" and "Lie Scale or Social Desirability Scale" differed most from grades for self-perception. The results of THI were matched with character assessment by three teachers. The correlation coefficient was highest (significant) for "Aggressiveness" by THI and "Extrovert" by the teachers. The "Lie Scale or Social Desirability", "Mental Instability", "Depression" and "Nervousness" of THI had lower coefficient of correlation, which was thought due to the least sensitive character of these scales not for THI but for the teachers or the other persons.
Maternal mortality rates, infant mortality rates, neo-natal mortality rates and the causes of those deaths in China were compared with Japan. 1. In China, maternal mortality rate of urban district was 4.9 times as high as Japan and that of rural district was 12.2 times as high as Japan. In the causes of maternal deaths, the percentages of hemorrhage and sepsis of puerperal were higher in China than Japan. 2. In China, infant mortality rate of urban district was 3.8 times as high as Japan and that of rural district was 6.9 times as high as Japan. The percentage of deaths less than four weeks after birth in infant deaths was higher in China than Japan. The first cause of infant deaths were neo-natal diseases in both countries and the proportion of that was higher in China than Japan. The second cause of infant deaths in Japan was congenital malformations and that in both district in China was respiratory system diseases such as pneumonia or bronchitis. 3. In China, neo-natal mortality rate of urban district was 4.3 times as high as Japan and that of rural district was 7.7 times as high as Japan. The first cause of neo-natal deaths in both countries was birth injuries, hypoxia, postnatal asphyxia and other respiratory diseases. The second cause of Japan and urban district in China was congenital malformation and that of rural district in China was premature infant with unknown etiology. It seemed that these differences of the level of maternal and child health were caused from the differences of medical care and health service systems, health insurance system, and education level of mothers.