We made a basic approach about changes in the lifestyle to study the association between lifestyle-changes and health. 1, 404 male employees who took a medical examination every year for nine years from 1997 to 2005 are the study subjects. We reviewed changes in tobacco use, drinking, physical activity and an intake of various foods, using an analysis of variance, and a figure of bubble. We summarized degree of changes in the lifestyle by using cluster analysis. Changes in tobacco use during 9 year period were small. As for the drinking habit, intea-individual variation was not so large, but an inter-individual variation was large. As for the changes in dietary habits and other habits, there may be 3 or 4 groups according to their variation. Because we examined about answers of questionnaire among limited subjects, we should be careful for interpretation of the results. However, we newly showed that there were various patterns among changes in the lifestyle. And for example, tobacco use is a relatively stable lifestyle and that enables typical epidemiologic studies meaningful. Coaching on health which considers an individual pattern of lifestyle-changes becomes important. It seems that we can make use of this result as a suggestive reference. And we found that a figure of bubble is useful to evaluate the lifestyle changes without any application for statistical analysis.
Oral α-hemolytic Streptococcus contains etiologic agents that can cause not only dental caries, but also bacterial pneumonia, infective endocarditis and other diseases. As bacteria on the tooth surface can be physically removed through brushing, it is necessary to train children to acquire the proper toothbrushing method in the infancy stage of forming a habit of brushing their teeth. This study was conducted with the objective of clarifying the changes in the number of a hemolytic Streptococcus adhering to the tooth surface before and after self-brushing by infants, with the intention of being useful in terms of the oral hygiene environment, developing measures to prevent pneumococcal infection and establishing toothbrushing habits. The participants, after obtaining parental agreement, consisted of 117 nursery school-age children (ages 3, 4 and 5 years) with an average age of 60.5±9.9 months. The bacteria count, irrespective of the infants' sex, was significantly lower after brushing than before brushing. However, as the count was 6.1 x 104 CFU/mL before brushing and 3.1×104 CFU/mL after brushing, the need for instruction to reinforce infants' self-care agency is indicated. The bacteria count before brushing among 3-year olds tended to be higher than among 4-year olds, suggesting that the 3-year olds' ability at fine movement is not yet developed. No significant correlation was determined between brushing time and reduction in bacteria count, and it is considered that if proper brushing is performed even over a brief period, the bacteria count can be reduced. Moreover, the bacteria count before brushing among infants without the presence of fathers and infants with a sibling was significantly higher, pointing out the need to recognize them as a high risk group from the viewpoints of dental caries and pneumococcal infection prevention.
Background : The male-to-female ratio of infection for HIV/AIDS has rarely been reported since the 1990s. We previously calculated the country-specific male-to-female ratio of people living with HIV/AIDS, in 1999, 2001, and 2003. Methods : The data of people living with HIV/AIDS and the HIV adult rate were obtained from the table of country-specific HIV/AIDS estimates in the Report on the global HIV/AIDS epidemic, UNAIDS. Results : The male-to-female ratios of the countries in Africa region were reported to be below 1.00 in 1999, 2001, and 2003. The ratios of the countries in other regions were all over 1.00, except for the Bahamas in 2001, Haiti in 2001 and 2003, Jamaica in 2001, Guyana in 2001 and 2003, and Honduras in 2001 and 2003. The male-to-female ratios significantly decreased in Africa and Latin America region between 1999 and 2003 according to the Wilcoxon signed rank test (p< 0.0005). The countries with a high HIV adult rate tended to have lower male-to-female ratios and vice versa in 1999, 2001, and 2003 according to the Wilcoxon rank sum test (p< 0.005). In the 1980s homosexual or bisexual transmission and transmission through drug-injecting behavior were the major modes of spreading HIV in North America, Australia, and Europe where the male-to-female ratios were 10-15. In contrast, heterosexual transmission predominated in Africa, the Caribbean and Latin America where the male-to-female ratios were 1-5. Conclusions : These results indicate that the ratios have therefore been declining in most countries recently, and even within the four-year period between 1999 and 2003, a decreasing tendency was observed in Africa and Latin America.