In the present paper, the relationship between handedness and laterality in some measurements of the human upper limb was discussed. On the basis of a questionaire on the handedness in routine work and action or sports movement deviced by Kimura and Asaeda (1974), of 392 male medical students, 28 (7.4%) were identified to be left handed and 2 (0.5%) ambidextrous, and others (92.4%) were right handed. The subjects of the study consisted of 28 left handed students and 22 right handed ones sampled at random. The following items were measured; somatornetrically the grip strength, the girth of upper arm and forearm, and the length of upper limb, upper arm, forearm and hand; and on the radiographs of the hand and wrist, the length and the width at mid shaft of all the metacarpals and phalanges, in both right and left sides. Laterality was discussed based on the differences of the means in both sides, the distributions of the dominant side and the laterality coefficient for each measurement between the right and left handed groups. The laterality coefficient was calculated based on the following equation for each individual; L.C. = 100(R-L)/C.V.(R+L). In this equation, the R and L are the measured values in the right and left sides, and the C.V. is the coefficient of variance. A negative sign is conventionally added to the coefficient, when the measurement is dominant at the left side. From this study, the following results were found; (1) The grip strength and the girth of forearm, followed by the girth of upper arm and the length of forearm, are apparently dominant at the same side of the handedness. The length of hand is dominant at the left side for both right and left handed groups. The length of upper limb and upper arm do not show any laterality. A relationship of compensatory is suspected between the forearm and the hand in length. It serves probably to keep a balance between the right and left upper limbs. (2) The length of every hand bone generally shows little lateralities. The width of the second metacarpal and proximal, middle and distal phalanges, the third metacarpal and proximal and middle phalanges, the fourth metacarpal and proximal phalanx, and the fifth metacarpal are dominant at the same side of the handedness. (3) Dominance of the measurement at the side of handedness is generally more apparent in the right handed group than in the left, as well as in males than in females.
Malaysia is the nation consisted of three races, Malays, Chinese and Indians. Researchers have found out the racial differences in incidences of hepatic diseases. Reviewing about 5, 000 biopsies from all areas of Malaysia, Marsden (1958) noticed the high incidence of hepatoma in Chinese, and that of skin cancer in Indians. Similar results were also shown by Kutty and Balasegaram (1972) in hospital cases in Malaysia from a statistical study. We carried out a biostatistical study onn liver cancer and liver diseases in Malaysia in November 1974. This study was held as a part of the study: A Malaysia-Japan Cooperative Study on Mycotoxins in Foods in Relation to Liver Diseases in Malaysia (1975). Our dietary survey (1980) was also done in Sekinchan near the town, Tanjong Karang in Selangor state. As some data were collected during our stay in Malaysia, the analysis was carried out mainly the mortality caused by liver cancer. Malaysia is such a multiracial nation that it is eminently suitable to compare the characteristics of the mortality and the way of life between communities even in the same natural environment.
We studied the relationship between food supplies and mortality rates of several diseases. Data was collected from two Japanese Publications, 1951-1976, Food Balance Sheet and Vital Statistics. In the first stage, the variables, amount of food supplied annually, age-adjusted death rates, are grouped into five categories according to their types of regression lines: (1) monotonous increment, (2) monotonous decrement, (3) concave, (4) convex, (5) other. Statistics calculated by means of principal component analysis represented characteristics of complicated phenomena. After that, canonical correlation analysis was applied to typical foods and mortality rates which were selected because of their history of changing patterns. The first and second canonical correlation coefficients were extremely high. It was suggested that food supply and mortality rates had a significant relationship during 1951-1976 . Furthermore, it was suggested that rice consumption changed concurrently with hypertension, cerebrovascular disease and stomach cancer; and consumption of meat, oil, fat, dairy products, eggs and sugar increased concurrently with the increasing rate of cancers of the colon, rectum, breast and pancreas. The latter diseases have already been linked to Western or European food patterns. The results in this study strongly support previous results which have been reported by other studies.